In linguistics, a suffix (also sometimes called a postfix or ending) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs. Particularly in the study of Semitic languages, a suffix is called an afformative, as they can alter the form of the words to which they are fixed. In Indo-European studies, a distinction is made between suffixes and endings (see Proto-Indo-European root). A word-final segment that is somewhere between a free morpheme and a bound morpheme is known as a suffixoid or a semi-suffix (e.g., English -like or German -freundlich 'friendly').
Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes) or lexical information (derivational suffixes). An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence.
Some examples in European languages:
- Girls, where the suffix -s marks the plural.
- He makes, where suffix -s marks the third person singular present tense.
- It closed, where the suffix -ed marks the past tense.
- De beaux jours, where the suffix -x marks the plural.
- Elle est passablement jolie, where the suffix -e marks the feminine form of the adjective.
Many synthetic languages—Czech, German, Finnish, Latin, Hungarian, Russian, Turkish, etc.—use a large number of endings.
Suffixes used in English frequently have Greek, French, or Latin origins.
Other articles related to "suffix":
... Derivation (linguistics) Lexeme Marker (linguistics) Morpheme Pejorative suffix Prefix Prefix morpheme Suffix at Wiktionary WiktionaryCategoryEnglish suffixes ...
... is as follows, where items in parentheses are optional verb root + (causative suffix) + (person-object suffix) + (transitive suffix) + tense suffix + person-number ...
... modern Armenian last names (family names) end with the originally patronymic suffix -յան (RAO) or -եան (TAO), transliterated as -ian, -yan, or ... Some Armenian last names bear the suffix -նց (IPA ), transliterated as -nc, -nts or -ntz (as in Bakunts or Adontz), or in addition to -yan/-ian (as in Vardanyants), although that ... Some Armenian surnames have a suffix -լի (IPA ) preceding the -յան/-եան suffix ...
... Two have been accepted as official The suffix -io used to derive the names of countries and states, such as Meksikio "Mexico" vs ... Esperantists also use -io in place of -ujo, the original suffix for countries named after their inhabitants, so that Anglio "England" is found alongside the more traditional Anglujo ... The other official addition is a suffix -enda indicating that something must be done (pagenda "payable (by)") this was originally introduced as part of the Ido reform ...