Shock Layer

Some articles on shock layer, shock, shocks, layers:

Reentry - Shock Layer Gas Physics - Real (equilibrium) Gas Model
... When air is processed by a shock wave, it is superheated by compression and chemically dissociates through many different reactions (Direct friction upon the reentry object is not the main ... The distance from the shock wave to the stagnation point on the entry vehicle's leading edge is called shock wave stand off ... An approximate rule of thumb for shock wave standoff distance is 0.14 times the nose radius ...
Reentry - Shock Layer Gas Physics
... An approximate rule-of-thumb used by heat shield designers for estimating peak shock layer temperature is to assume the air temperature in kelvins to be equal to the ... at 7.8 km/s would experience a peak shock layer temperature of 7800 K ... At typical reentry temperatures, the air in the shock layer is both ionized and dissociated ...
Reentry - Shock Layer Gas Physics - Real (non-equilibrium) Gas Model
... A non-equilibrium real gas model is the most accurate model of a shock layer's gas physics, but is more difficult to solve than an equilibrium model ... For lunar return entry of 11 km/s, the shock layer contains a significant amount of ionized nitrogen and oxygen ... These molecules are formed by the shock wave dissociating ambient atmospheric gas followed by recombination within the shock layer into new molecular species ...
Crystal Oscillator - Stability and Aging
... Other dynamic stress inducing factors are shocks, vibrations, and acoustic noise ... chromium or aluminium, can react with the crystal, creating layers of metal oxide and silicon these interface layers can undergo changes in time ... strong enough to maintain contact even at strong mechanical shocks, but weak enough to not support significant strain gradients (unlike chromium, aluminium, and nickel) ...

Famous quotes containing the words layer and/or shock:

    A revolution is not the overturning of a cart, a reshuffling in the cards of state. It is a process, a swelling, a new growth in the race. If it is real, not simply a trauma, it is another ring in the tree of history, layer upon layer of invisible tissue composing the evidence of a circle.
    Kate Millett (b. 1934)

    There are persons who, when they cease to shock us, cease to interest us.
    —F.H. (Francis Herbert)