Scandium

Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic transition metal, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanoids. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia.

Scandium is present in most of the deposits of rare earth and uranium compounds, but it is extracted from these ores in only a few mines worldwide. Because of the low availability and the difficulties in the preparation of metallic scandium, which was first done in 1937, it took until the 1970s before applications for scandium were developed. The positive effects of scandium on aluminium alloys were discovered in the 1970s, and its use in such alloys remains its only major application.

The properties of scandium compounds are intermediate between those of aluminium and yttrium. A diagonal relationship exists between the behavior of magnesium and scandium, just as there is between beryllium and aluminium. In the chemical compounds of the elements shown as group 3, above, the predominant oxidation state is +3.

Read more about Scandium:  Production, Compounds, History, Applications, Health and Safety

Other articles related to "scandium":

Scandium(III) Sulfide - Synthesis
... two elements and heat them, but in the case of scandium, this method yields scandium monosulfide, ScS ... Sc2S3 can be prepared by heating scandium(III) oxide and hydrogen sulfide in a graphite crucible to 1550 °C or above for 2–3 hours ...
Lead Scandium Tantalate
... Lead scandium tantalate (PST) is a ferroelectric ceramic material with perovskite structure ... It is a mixed oxidize of lead, scandium, and tantalum ...
Scandium(III) Sulfide
... Scandium(III) sulfide is a chemical compound of scandium and sulfur with the chemical formula Sc2S3 ...
Scandium - Health and Safety
... Elemental scandium is considered non-toxic and little animal testing of scandium compounds has been done ... The median lethal dose (LD50) levels for scandium(III) chloride for rats have been determined as 4 mg/kg for intraperitoneal and 755 mg/kg for oral administration ... In the light of these results compounds of scandium should be handled as compounds of moderate toxicity ...
Scandium Compounds - Applications
... The addition of scandium to aluminium limits the excessive grain growth that occurs in the heat-affected zone of welded aluminium components ... The main application of scandium by weight is in aluminium-scandium alloys for minor aerospace industry components ... These alloys contain between 0.1% and 0.5% of scandium ...