Reducing Agent

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is the element or compound in a reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction that donates an electron to another species; however, since the reducer loses an electron we say it is "oxidized". This means that there must be an "oxidizer"; because if any chemical is an electron donor (reducer), another must be an electron recipient (oxidizer). Thus reducers are "oxidized" by oxidizers and oxidizers are "reduced" by reducers; reducers are by themselves reduced (have more electrons) and oxidizers are by themselves oxidized (have less electrons). For example, consider the following reaction:

2 4− + Cl2 → 2 3− + 2 Cl−

The reducing agent in this reaction is ferrocyanide (4-). It donates an electron, becoming oxidized to ferricyanide (3-). Simultaneously, the oxidizer chlorine is reduced to chloride.

In organic chemistry, reduction more specifically refers to the addition of hydrogen to a molecule, though the aforementioned definition still applies. For example, benzene is reduced to cyclohexane in the presence of a platinum catalyst:

C6H6 + 3 H2 → C6H12

In organic chemistry, good reducing agents are reagents that deliver H2.

Read more about Reducing AgentCharacteristics of Reducing Agents, Importance of Reducing and Oxidizing Agents, Example of Redox Reaction, Common Reducing Agents, Several Common Reducing Agents and Their Products

Other articles related to "reducing agent, agent, reducing, reducing agents, agents":

Several Common Reducing Agents and Their Products
... Agent Product Hydrogen H+, H2O NADH NAD+ Metals metal ions Hydrocarbons CO2 carbon dioxide, H2O ...
Dithiothreitol - Reducing Agent
... DTT is an unusually strong reducing agent, because once oxidized, it forms a stable six-membered ring with an internal disulfide bond ... The reducing power of DTT is limited to pH values above 7, since only the negatively charged thiolate form -S– is reactive (the protonated thiol form -SH is not) the pKa of the thiol groups is 9.2 ...
Metal Carbonyl - Synthesis - Reduction of Metal Salts and Oxides
... A variety of reducing agents are employed, including copper, aluminum, hydrogen, as well as metal alkyls such as triethylaluminum ... chloride in benzene with aluminum as a reducing agent, and aluminum chloride as the catalyst CrCl3 + Al + 6 CO → Cr(CO)6 + AlCl3 The use of metal alkyls, e.g ... triethylaluminium and diethylzinc as the reducing agent leads to the oxidative coupling of the alkyl radical to the dimer WCl6 + 6 CO + 2 Al(C2H5)3 → W(CO)6 + 2 AlCl3 ...
Use of Ellingham Diagrams - Alumino Thermic Process
... This fact indicates that aluminum can be used as the reducing agent for oxides of all these metals ... Gibb's free energy is negative, aluminium acts as the reducing agent ... In pyrometallurgy, Al is used as a reducing agent in the alumino-thermic process or thermite process to extract Cr and Mn by reduction of their oxides ...
TCEP - Applications
... TCEP is often used as a reducing agent to break disulfide bonds within and between proteins as a preparatory step for gel electrophoresis ... Compared to the other two most common agents used for this purpose (dithiothreitol and β-mercaptoethanol), TCEP has the advantages of being odorless, a more powerful reducing agent, an irreversible ...

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