Proto-Indo-European Pronouns - Reflexes

Reflexes, or descendants of the PIE reconstructed forms in its daughter languages, include the following.

Type Reconstruction Reflexes
1st sg. nom. *eǵoH Hitt. ūk, Ved. ahám, Av. azəm, Gk. ἐγω(ν), Lat. ego, Goth. ik,

Eng. Ic/I, Gm. ih/ich, Du. ik, Bulg. азaz, Russ. яja,

Kamviri õc, Carian uk, Osset. æz/æz, Umb. eho, ON ek, Lith. aš, Venet. ego

1st sg. oblique *me Ved. mām, Av. mąm, Gk. ἐμέ, Lat. mē,

Eng. mec/me, Gm. mih/mich, Du. mij,

Osset./Pers. mæn, Umb. mehe, Ir. mé/mé, Welsh mi, Russ. mne, Alb. mua, Venet. mego

1st pl. nom. *we-i Hitt. wēš, Ved. vayám, Av. vaēm, Goth. wit (dual), weis, Toch. was/wes,

Eng. wē/we, Gm. wir/wir, Du. wij,

Pers. vayam/?, ON vit;vér, Lith. vedu

1st pl. oblique *nō̆s Hitt. anzāš, Gk. νώ (dual), Lat. nōs, Goth. ugkis (dual), uns, Toch. ñäś (sg.),

Gm. unsih/uns, Eng. uncer/us, Du. ons,

Skr. nas, Av. nō, Pers. amaxām/?, ON oss, okkr, Ir. ni, Welsh ni, OPruss. noūson, Lith. nuodu, Pol., Russ. nas, Alb. ne

2nd sg. *tī̆ (*tū̆) / *te Hitt. tuk, Ved. tvám, Av. tū, Gk. σύ, Doric τύ, Lat. tū, Goth. þu, Toch. tu/tuwe, OCS ty

Gm. thu/du, Eng. þu/thou,

Pers. tuva/to, Osset. dy, Kashmiri tsū', Kamviri tü, Umb. tu, tui, Osc. tuvai, ON þú, Ir. tú/tú, Welsh ti, Arm. tu/du, OPruss. toū, Pol. ty, Russ. ty, Lith. tu, Ltv. tu, Alb. ti

2nd pl. nom. *yū(H)s Ved. yūyám, Av. yūš, Gk. ὑμεῖς, Goth. jūs, Toch. yas/yes,

Eng. gē/ye; ēow/you, Gm. ir/ihr, Du. jij / gij,

ON ykkr, yðr, Arm. dzez/dzez/cez, OPruss. ioūs, Lith. jūs, Ltv. jūs, Alb. juve, ju

2nd pl. oblique *wō̆s Lat. vōs,

Skr. vas, Av. vō, Umb. uestra, OPruss. wans, Pol. wy, was, Russ. vy, vas, Alb. u

Demonstrative ("this, that") *so (m), *se-h₂ (f), *to-d (n) Ved. sá, sā, tád, Av. hō, hā, tat̰, Gk. ὁ, ἡ, τό, Goth. sa, so, þata, Icel. sá, sú, það, TochB. se, sā, te

Old Eng. se, seo, thæt, Russ. tot, ta, to

Demonstrative ("the just named; this") *h₁e / *ei- Ved. ay-ám, id-ám, Av. īm "him", Lat. is, ea, id, Alb. aì (he, that), ajò (she, that), Goth. is "he"

Skr. it

Demonstrative / adverbial particle *ḱi(-) Lat. cis, Eng. he/he, Gm. hiu-tagu/heute "on this day, today", OCS sĭ, Lith. šìs,

ON hér, Goth. hita, Eng. hit/it, Gm. hiar/hier, Russ. eto

Reflexive *s(w)e- Ved. sva-yám, Av. xᵛāi, Gk. ἑ-, Lat. sē, sibi, suus, Ir. fa(-dessin)/?, OCS sę,

Gm. sih/sich, sin/sein, Du. zich, zijn

Carian sfes, Lyd. śfa-, Osc. sífeí, Umb. seso, ON sik, sinn, Goth. sik, Arm. ink῾s, OPruss. sien, sin, Lith. savo, Latv. sevi, Russ. sebe, -sja, Alb. vetë, u, Phryg. ve

Relative *(H)yo- Ved. yá-, Av. ya-, Gk. ὅ-, Proto-Celtic *yo-
Interrogative pronoun *kʷi-s (m, f), *kʷi-d (n) Hitt. kuiš, Luw. kuiš, Gk. τίς, Lat. quis, quid, Ir. cia, Eng. hwī/–, OCS čĭto

Lyc. tike, Lyd. qi-, Osset. či, Pers. čiy/ki, Osc. pisi, Umb. púí, svepis, ON hverr, Welsh pwi, Russ. kto, čto, Alb. çë

Interrogative adjective *kʷo-s (m), *kʷe-h₂ (f), *kʷo-d (n) Ved. kás, Av. kō, Gk. ποῦ "where?", pōs "somehow", Goth. ƕas, Lith. kàs, OCS kŭto

Eng. hwā/who; hwæt/what, Gm. hwër/wer, Du. wie / wat,

Carian kuo, Kashmiri kus, Kamviri kâča, Lat. qui, quae, quod; Arm. ov, inč῾, Toch. kus/kŭse, Ltv. kas, Pol. kto, Russ. kto, Alb. ku, kush, Phryg. kos

"(an)other" *alyo- Gk. ἄλλος, Lat. alius, Goth. aljis, Ir. ail/eile, Toch. ālak/alyek,

Gm. eli-lenti "in another land, expelled" / elend "miserable, wretched", Eng. elles/else,

Lyd. aλaś, Skr. araṇa, Osc. allo, ON elligar, Gaul. alla, Arm. ayl

In the following languages, two reflexes separated by a slash mean:

  • English: Old English / Modern English
  • German: Old High German / New High German
  • Irish: Old Irish / Modern Irish
  • Persian: Old Persian / Modern Persian
  • Tocharian: Tocharian A / Tocharian B

Read more about this topic:  Proto-Indo-European Pronouns

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