Polio Vaccine

Polio Vaccine

Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis (or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salk and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Salk on April 12, 1955, it consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957 and it was licensed in 1962. Because there is no long term carrier state for poliovirus in immunocompetent individuals, polioviruses have no non-primate reservoir in nature, and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote. Therefore, interruption of person to person transmission of the virus by vaccination is the critical step in global polio eradication. The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most countries in the world, and reduced the worldwide incidence from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to 1,652 cases in 2007.

Read more about Polio VaccineDevelopment, Inactivated Vaccine, Oral Vaccine, Iatrogenic (vaccine-induced) Polio, Contamination Concerns

Other articles related to "polio vaccine, vaccine, polio, vaccines, polio vaccines":

History Of Poliomyelitis - Vaccine Development
... assistant at New York University, attempted to produce a polio vaccine, procured from virus in ground up monkey spinal cords, and killed by formaldehyde ... Brodie first tested the vaccine on himself and several of his assistants ... He then gave the vaccine to three thousand children, many developed allergic reactions, but none of the children developed an immunity to polio ...
Polio Vaccine - Contamination Concerns
... determined that the rhesus monkey kidney cells used to prepare the poliovirus vaccines were infected with the SV40 virus (Simian Virus-40) ... SV40 was found to be present in stocks of the injected form of the polio vaccine (IPV) in use between 1955 to 1963 ... Over 98 million Americans received one or more doses of polio vaccine between 1955 to 1963 when a proportion of vaccine was contaminated with SV40 it has been estimated that 10–30 ...
Poliomyelitis Eradication - Factors Influencing Eradication of Polio - Obstacles
... Among the greatest obstacles to global polio eradication are the lack of basic health infrastructure, which limits vaccine distribution and delivery, the crippling effects of civil war and ... maintaining the potency of live (attenuated) vaccines in extremely hot or remote areas ... The oral polio vaccine must be kept at 2-8 °Celsius for vaccination to be successful ...
List Of Poliomyelitis Survivors - Uncontested Diagnosis - Writing
... He was crippled by polio in childhood ... He caught polio, aged 14, and was paralysed for several months ... He caught polio, aged four months, after receiving the oral polio vaccine ...
Panacea Biotec - History
... Panacea Biotec is the largest Vaccine manufacturing Company in India and is well acknowledged by the UN Health Agencies in partnering the Polio eradication ... sequel to the completion of full range of Oral polio vaccines (tOPV, mOPV1, mOPV3 bOPV) Panacea Biotec has introduced the next generation Inactivated Polio vaccine (eIPV) vide a collaboration with the ... This vaccine has found extensive usage in India for more than 3 years now and is registered in Bangladesh ...

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