**Ohm's law** states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance, one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship:

where *I* is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, *V* is the potential difference measured *across* the conductor in units of volts, and *R* is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm's law states that the *R* in this relation is constant, independent of the current.

The law was named after the German physicist Georg Ohm, who, in a treatise published in 1827, described measurements of applied voltage and current through simple electrical circuits containing various lengths of wire. He presented a slightly more complex equation than the one above (see History section below) to explain his experimental results. The above equation is the modern form of Ohm's law.

In physics, the term *Ohm's law* is also used to refer to various generalizations of the law originally formulated by Ohm. The simplest example of this is:

where * J* is the current density at a given location in a resistive material,

*is the electric field at that location, and*

**E***σ*is a material dependent parameter called the conductivity. This reformulation of Ohm's law is due to Gustav Kirchhoff.

Read more about Ohm's Law: History, Scope, Microscopic Origins, Hydraulic Analogy, Circuit Analysis, Temperature Effects, Relation To Heat Conductions, Other Versions

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“You can no more bridle passions with logic than you can justify them in the *law* courts. Passions are facts and not dogmas.”

—Alexander Herzen (1812–1870)