Mathe

Mathe

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the abstract study of topics encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and other properties; it has no generally accepted definition.

Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. When those mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature.

Through the use of abstraction and logical reasoning, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity for as far back as written records exist. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Mathematics developed at a relatively slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) said, "The universe cannot be read until we have learned the language and become familiar with the characters in which it is written. It is written in mathematical language, and the letters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which means it is humanly impossible to comprehend a single word. Without these, one is wandering about in a dark labyrinth." Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) referred to mathematics as "the Queen of the Sciences." Benjamin Peirce (1809–1880) called mathematics "the science that draws necessary conclusions." David Hilbert said of mathematics: "We are not speaking here of arbitrariness in any sense. Mathematics is not like a game whose tasks are determined by arbitrarily stipulated rules. Rather, it is a conceptual system possessing internal necessity that can only be so and by no means otherwise." Albert Einstein (1879–1955) stated that "as far as the laws of mathematics refer to reality, they are not certain; and as far as they are certain, they do not refer to reality."

Mathematics is used throughout the world as an essential tool in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics, the branch of mathematics concerned with application of mathematical knowledge to other fields, inspires and makes use of new mathematical discoveries, which has led to the development of entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians also engage in pure mathematics, or mathematics for its own sake, without having any application in mind. There is no clear line separating pure and applied mathematics, and practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered.

Read more about Mathe:  Etymology, Definitions of Mathematics, History, Inspiration, Pure and Applied Mathematics, and Aesthetics, Notation, Language, and Rigor, Fields of Mathematics, Mathematics As Profession, Mathematics As Science

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... Trophy Year Winners Number of masterpoints 1958 Ivar Stakgold n/a 1959 Lew Mathe n/a 1960 Norman Kay n/a 1961 Robert Jordan n/a 1962 Robert Jordan n/a 1963 Sidney Silodor ...
Annanias Mathe
... Annanias Mathe (sometimes reported as Ananias Mathe) is a notorious serial killer, serial rapist and armed robber from Mozambique who achieved further notoriety in 2006 by being the only person to have ever ... Mathe was initially arrested on 51 counts of murder, attempted murder, rape, hijacking and armed robbery in November 2006 ... detained in the A6 ward of C-Max Penitentiary which houses dangerous and hardened criminals, Mathe managed to escape by smearing himself with petroleum jelly ...
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... Between 1245 and 1250 Gaston married Mathe de Matha (or Amata of Mastas died 1270/3), Viscountess of Marsan, daughter of Boson de Mathe, lord of Cognac, and Petronilla of Bigorre ... Married, in 1252, to Roger-Bernard III de Foix Mathe, married Gerald VI, Count of Armagnac in 1260 Guillelme (or Guillemette died 1309), affianced in 1270 to Sancho IV of Castile ...
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... In November 2006, Annanias Mathe became the first person to escape from C Max ... Mathe, who has extensive military training gained during Mozambique's civil war, is reported to have escaped by covering his body in Vaseline and squeezing through his tiny cell window (20 cm by 60 cm) ... Mathe had been detained on more than 50 charges, including murder, rape, armed robbery and hijacking ...
Mathematics As Science
... Many philosophers believe that mathematics is not experimentally falsifiable, and thus not a science according to the definition of Karl Popper ... However, in the 1930s Gödel's incompleteness theorems convinced many mathematicians that mathematics cannot be reduced to logic alone, and Karl Popper concluded that "most mathematical theories are, like those of physics and biology, hypothetico-deductive pure mathematics therefore turns out to be much closer to the natural sciences whose hypotheses are conjectures, than it seemed even recently." Other thinkers, notably Imre Lakatos, have applied a version of falsificationism to mathematics itself ...