|Kings and Queen Regents of
Madurai Nayak Dynasty
|Madurai Nayak Rulers|
|Kumara Krishnappa Nayak||1563—1573|
|Joint Rulers Group I||1573—1595|
|Joint Rulers Group II||1595—1602|
|Muttu Krishnappa Nayak||1602—1609|
|Muttu Virappa Nayak||1609—1623|
|Muthu Alakadri Nayak||1659—1662|
|Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak||1682—1689|
|Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayak||1704—1731|
|Madurai 72 Bastion Fort|
|Tiruchirapalli Rock Fort|
|Thirumalai Nayak Mahal, Madurai|
|Chokkanatha Nayak Palace/Durbar Hall, Tiruchirapalli|
|Rani Mangammal Tamukkam palace Madurai|
In 1538 AD, the Vijayanagara commander Kotikam Nagama Nayaka defeated Veerasekara Chola who occupied the Pandyan region. However, Nagama Nayakka declared independence from the Vijayanagar dynasty instead of handing back the kingdom. A folk story says he did so under the influence of a girl with whom he was in love. To check the rebellion of Nagama Nayaka, emperor Krishnadeva Raya sent a large force under Viswanatha Nayak. Vishwanatha Nayaka was the son of Nagama Nayaka. Viswanatha eventually defeated and imprisoned his father. He was rewarded by the Vijayanagar king who made him the Viceroy of the Tamil Country. Krishnadeva Raya did not punish Nagama Nayak. The emperor gave him some religious work and allowed him to attend the royal court. Viswanatha Nayudu obeyed the orders of the Vijayanagar king nominally, and placed the Pandya on the throne who ruled for a while. However, Vishwanatha Nayaka later set out to rule on his own account; and in 1559 when the Vijayanagara Kingdom was in decline, he established a dynastic rule.
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“The origins of clothing are not practical. They are mystical and erotic. The primitive man in the wolf-pelt was not keeping dry; he was saying: Look what I killed. Arent I the best?”
—Katharine Hamnett (b. 1948)
“Compare the history of the novel to that of rock n roll. Both started out a minority taste, became a mass taste, and then splintered into several subgenres. Both have been the typical cultural expressions of classes and epochs. Both started out aggressively fighting for their share of attention, novels attacking the drama, the tract, and the poem, rock attacking jazz and pop and rolling over classical music.”
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“Grown onto every inch of plate, except
Where the hinges let it move, were living things,
Barnacles, mussels, water weedsand one
Blue bit of polished glass, glued there by time:
The origins of art.”
—Howard Moss (b. 1922)