The Linear Model of Innovation is an early model of innovation that suggests technical change happens in a linear fashion from Invention to Innovation to Diffusion.
Current models of innovation deriving from approaches such as Actor-Network Theory or Social shaping of technology provide a much richer picture of the way innovation works.
Current ideas in Open Innovation and User innovation derive from these later ideas.
Also known as ‘Traditional Phase Gate Model’, under this model, product or services concept is frozen at early stage so as to minimize risk. Also innovation process in enterprise involves series of sequential phases/steps arranged in such a manner that the preceding phase must be cleared before moving to next phase. Thus a project must pass through a gate with the permission of gatekeeper before moving to the next succeeding phase.
Criteria for passing through each gate, and the person at each gate are defined beforehand. The gatekeeper examines whether the stated objectives for preceding phase have been properly met or not and whether desired development has taken place at the preceding phase or not?
Two versions of the linear model of innovation are often presented:
- "technology push" model
- "market pull" model.
In the period 1950s-Mid-1960s the industrial innovation process was generally perceived as a linear progression from scientific discovery,through technological development in firms,to the marketplace,Rothwell (1994) The stages of the "Technology Push" model are:
- Basic science→Design and engineering→Manufacturing→Marketing→Sales
In the period Mid 1960s- Early 1970s emerges the second-generation Innovation model,referred to as the"market pull"model of innovation.According to this simple sequential model, the market was the source of new ideas for directing R&D,which had a reactive role in the process. The stages of the "market pull " model are:
- Market need—Development—Manufacturing—Sales.
The linear models of innovation supported numerous criticisms concerning the linearity of the models.These models ignore the many feedbacks and loops that occur between the different "stages" of the process Shortcomings and failures that occur at various stages may lead to a reconsideration of earlier steps and this may result in an innovation. A history of the linear model of innovation may be found in Godin Benoit (2006)
Other articles related to "linear model of innovation":
... Rogers, Everett (2003) ... Diffusion of Innovations, 5th edition, Free Press ...
Famous quotes containing the words innovation and/or model:
“Both cultures encourage innovation and experimentation, but are likely to reject the innovator if his innovation is not accepted by audiences. High culture experiments that are rejected by audiences in the creators lifetime may, however, become classics in another era, whereas popular culture experiments are forgotten if not immediately successful. Even so, in both cultures innovation is rare, although in high culture it is celebrated and in popular culture it is taken for granted.”
—Herbert J. Gans (b. 1927)
“There are very many characteristics which go into making a model civil servant. Prominent among them are probity, industry, good sense, good habits, good temper, patience, order, courtesy, tact, self-reliance, many deference to superior officers, and many consideration for inferiors.”
—Chester A. Arthur (18291886)