Late Middle Ages - Military History

Military History

Medieval warfare

Through battles such as Courtrai (1302), Bannockburn (1314), and Morgarten (1315), it became clear to the great territorial princes of Europe that the military advantage of the feudal cavalry was lost, and that a well equipped infantry was preferable. Through the Welsh Wars the English became acquainted with, and adopted the highly efficient longbow. Once properly managed, this weapon gave them a great advantage over the French in the Hundred Years' War.

The introduction of gunpowder affected the conduct of war significantly. Though employed by the English as early as the Battle of Crécy in 1346, firearms initially had little effect in the field of battle. It was through the use of cannons as siege weapons that major change was brought about; the new methods would eventually change the architectural structure of fortifications.

Changes also took place within the recruitment and composition of armies. The use of the national or feudal levy was gradually replaced by paid troops of domestic retinues or foreign mercenaries. The practice was associated with Edward III of England and the condottieri of the Italian city-states. All over Europe, Swiss soldiers were in particularly high demand. At the same time, the period also saw the emergence of the first permanent armies. It was in Valois France, under the heavy demands of the Hundred Years' War, that the armed forces gradually assumed a permanent nature.

Parallel to the military developments emerged also a constantly more elaborate chivalric code of conduct for the warrior class. This new-found ethos can be seen as a response to the diminishing military role of the aristocracy, and gradually it became almost entirely detached from its military origin. The spirit of chivalry was given expression through the new (secular) type of chivalric orders; the first of which was the Order of St. George founded by Charles I of Hungary in 1325, the best known probably the English Order of the Garter, founded by Edward III in 1348.

Read more about this topic:  Late Middle Ages

Other articles related to "military, history, military history":

Brian Bond - Published Works
... Victorian military campaigns edited by Brian Bond ... Mapledurham House, the historic home of the Blount family official guide history and description of contents ... War and society a yearbook of military history edited by Brian Bond and Ian Roy ...
A-b-a-a-a-a-a-a-b-a - Assessments - Expert Opinion - Other
... In his 2007 Guide to Military History on the Internet, Simon Fowler rated Wikipedia as "the best general resource" for military history research, and stated that "the results are largely accurate and generally. 1 military site he mentioned that "Wikipedia is often criticised for its inaccuracy and bias, but in my experience the military history articles are spot on." ...
Citadel Of Montpellier - History - Military History
... The citadel was built between 1624 and 1627 between the fortifications of the Écusson, or old town, and the coastal plain of the River Lez ... It was separated from the city proper by a wide esplanade, looking over the floodplain of the Lez ...
Periods of Military History - Modern Warfare
... What distinguishes modern military organizations from those previous is not their willingness to prevail in conflict by any method, but rather the technological variety of tools and methods available to ... Some of the military unit types and technologies which were developed in modern times are Ammunition Armory Conscription Grenadier Sappers and Miners Marine Aviation Rifleman Special Forces Naval Combatant ...
Swedish Empire - Military History
... Part of a series on the History of Sweden Prehistoric Prehistory (12000 BCE–800 CE) Viking Age (800–1050) Consolidation Middle Ages (1050–1397) Kalmar Union (1397 ... Sweden was able to reform its military tactics continuously throughout the period ... This was a military doctrine that (with the advantage of hindsight) might have proven a bit rash ...

Famous quotes containing the words history and/or military:

    The whole history of civilisation is strewn with creeds and institutions which were invaluable at first, and deadly afterwards.
    Walter Bagehot (1826–1877)

    I would sincerely regret, and which never shall happen whilst I am in office, a military guard around the President.
    Andrew Jackson (1767–1845)