Kakapo

The Kakapo (Māori: kākāpō, meaning night parrot), Strigops habroptila (Gray, 1845), also called owl parrot, is a species of large, flightless nocturnal parrot endemic to New Zealand. It has finely blotched yellow-green plumage, a distinct facial disc of sensory, vibrissa-like feathers, a large grey beak, short legs, large feet, and wings and a tail of relatively short length. A certain combination of traits makes it unique among its kind—it is the world's only flightless parrot, the heaviest parrot, nocturnal, herbivorous, visibly sexually dimorphic in body size, has a low basal metabolic rate, no male parental care, and is the only parrot to have a polygynous lek breeding system. It is also possibly one of the world's longest-living birds. Its anatomy typifies the tendency of bird evolution on oceanic islands, with few predators and abundant food: a generally robust physique, with accretion of thermodynamic efficiency at the expense of flight abilities, reduced wing muscles, and a diminished keel on the sternum.

The Kakapo is critically endangered; as of February 2012, only 126 living individuals are known, most of which have been given names. The common ancestor of the Kakapo and the genus Nestor became isolated from the remaining parrot species when New Zealand broke off from Gondwana, around 82 million years ago. Around 70 million years ago, the kakapo diverged from the genus Nestor. In the absence of mammalian predators, it lost the ability to fly. Because of Polynesian and European colonisation and the introduction of predators such as cats, rats, ferrets, and stoats, the Kakapo was almost wiped out. Conservation efforts began in the 1890s, but they were not very successful until the implementation of the Kakapo Recovery Plan in the 1980s. As of April 2012, surviving Kakapo are kept on three predator-free islands, Codfish (Whenua Hou), Anchor and Little Barrier islands, where they are closely monitored. Two large Fiordland islands, Resolution and Secretary, have been the subject of large-scale ecological restoration activities to prepare self-sustaining ecosystems with suitable habitat for the Kakapo. The New Zealand government is willingly providing the use of these islands to Kakapo conservation.

The conservation of the Kakapo has made the species well known. Many books and documentaries detailing the plight of the Kakapo have been produced in recent years, one of the earliest being Two in the Bush, made by Gerald Durrell for the BBC in 1962. A feature length documentary, The Unnatural History of the Kakapo won two major awards at the Reel Earth Environmental Film Festival. Two of the most significant documentaries, both made by NHNZ, are Kakapo - Night Parrot (1982) and To Save the Kakapo (1997). The BBC's Natural History Unit also featured the Kakapo, including a sequence with Sir David Attenborough in The Life of Birds. It was also one of the endangered animals that Douglas Adams and Mark Carwardine set out to find for the radio series and book Last Chance to See. An updated version of the series has been produced for BBC TV, in which Stephen Fry and Carwardine revisit the animals to see how they are getting on almost 20 years later, and in January 2009, they spent time filming the Kakapo on Codfish Island. Footage of a kakapo named Sirocco attempting to mate with Cawardine's head was viewed by millions worldwide, leading to Sirocco becoming "spokesbird" for New Zealand wildlife conservation in 2010, as part of the International Year of Biodiversity. The kakapo was featured in the documentary series South Pacific (known as Wild Pacific in US) episode Strange Islands, originally aired on June 13, 2009.

The Kakapo, like many other New Zealand bird species, was historically important to the Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand, appearing in many of their traditional legends and folklore. It was hunted and used as a resource by Māori, both for its meat as a food source and for its feathers, which were used to make highly valued pieces of clothing. It was also sometimes kept as a pet.

Read more about Kakapo:  Taxonomy, Systematics and Naming, Description, Ecology and Behaviour, Conservation, In Māori Culture, Media

Other articles related to "kakapo":

List Of Kakapo
... Every known living Kakapo, except some young chicks, has been given a name by Kakapo Recovery Programme officials ... Some Kakapo, such as Richard Henry and Arab, are named after people who have provided assistance to the preservation efforts ...
Kakapo - Media
... Male Kakapo booming Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player ... or download a player to play the clip in your browser The sound of a Kakapo booming ... Last Chance to See and Wild Down Under Kakapo- Video from April 2003, with footage of Richard-Henry (Kakapo) and Chalky Island, from YouTube "Birds of New Zealand ...
Don Merton - Professional Achievements
... other islands both within New Zealand and beyond led the NZWS field teams that re-discovered the kakapo parrot (in Fiordland) in 1974, and females of this species (on Stewart Island) in 1980 ... and documented the significance of the ritualised, nocturnal booming display of the Kakapo - it is in fact an unusual form of courtship display known as “lekking” instrumental in averting imminent extinction of ... This action proved very successful - the steep decline in Kakapo numbers was halted and adult mortality since (~30 years) has averaged a remarkably low ~1.3% per annum ...
Richard Treacy Henry
... an expert on the natural history of flightless birds in New Zealand, especially the Kakapo ... he transported numerous flightless birds, including Kakapo, Weka and Kiwi to Resolution Island, with the hope that they would be safe there ... Unfortunately, the attempted translocation of Kakapo was in vain as stoats reached the island around 1900 and Kakapo did not survive there ...