John FitzGibbon, 1st Earl of Clare - Summary

Summary

FitzGibbon appears to have made little mark in British political history, as compared to Irish parliamentary history. His adversary Henry Grattan and the aristocratic rebel Lord Edward FitzGerald (with the other rebels of 1798) are better remembered. FitzGibbon was apparently a hardline Protestant, a landlord and a member of the Protestant Ascendancy, who naturally supported those political measures that would preserve Protestant domination of Ireland and the continued suppression of the numerically dominant Catholics in Ireland. He won his point in 1801 and its immediate aftermath, when the Irish Parliament was dissolved and Union with Great Britain was achieved - without any concessions to Catholics. In the long run, his views lost out, as subsequent British Cabinets were forced to concede full rights to Catholics in 1829 (while imposing new voting restrictions in Ireland and thus disenfranchising poorer Catholics). The Union with Great Britain, so bitterly opposed by Henry Grattan, was eventually dissolved partially more than a century later.

FitzGibbon's most significant achievement (historically speaking) was probably his convincing King George III that any concessions to Roman Catholics, whether in Great Britain or in Ireland, would mean that the King was violating his Coronation Oath. Thus, the King and his second son became staunch opponents of pro-Emanicipation measures, which had to wait until both had died. In thus convincing the King (probably between 1793 and 1801), FitzGibbon's policy of repression towards Irish Catholics achieved its finest hour; in doing so, he also defeated all that Grattan and his party had worked to obtain. Furthermore, he also brought about Pitt's downfall, because Pitt had staked his own reputation on obtaining Catholic emancipation concurrently with the Act of Union. No other British Prime Minister would make such efforts for a long time. FitzGibbon thus had a negative role not only in Irish parliamentary and political history, but also in British political history.

By negating all of Grattan's efforts 1787-1789 and those of Pitt in the late 1790s to 1801, FitzGibbon allowed conditions to develop that would benefit sectarian leaders and political philosophies from both religious communities. It is unclear if FitzGibbon's support of Grattan, or support for Pitt's proposals would have made much difference, given that many hardline Protestants probably felt the same way as FitzGibbon. Furthermore, the British Cabinet (not to mention the Royal Family, then far more influential politically) was itself divided on the issue for most of the period. But just as Catholic Emancipation was brought about by a Tory Prime Minister in 1829, or substantial voting reforms brought about by Disraeli and the Conservatives, thus winning support from a crucial minority of those originally opposed to either, the support of a prominent hardline Protestant leader for Catholic Emancipation might have made all the difference to Irish history.

Read more about this topic:  John FitzGibbon, 1st Earl Of Clare

Other articles related to "summary":

2007–08 A-League - Regular Season - Round 21
... Griffiths 22' Bridge 64' Report Summary Rizzo 37' Harnwell 45+2' Attendance 16,212 Referee Michael Hester 19 January 2008 Central Coast Mariners 2 0 Wellington Phoenix Bluetongue Stadium, Gosford 1900 UTC+11 Aloisi ...
Varig Flight 254 - Summary - Aftermath
... About 41 survivors were rescued from the crash site by helicopter which flew them 30 miles to São José do Xingu, and from there they were flown by Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante turboprop planes to Cachimbo Airport 185 miles to the northwest ... They were then flown later to Brasilia Base Hospital near Brasilia ...
2007–08 A-League - Regular Season - Round 11
... Stadium, Adelaide 1930 UTC+1030 Report Summary Reinaldo 63' Attendance 10,705 Referee Peter Green 2 November 2007 Perth Glory 0 1 Wellington Phoenix Members Equity Stadium, Perth ...
2007–08 A-League - Regular Season - Round 20
... Hernández 31' Ward 35' Patafta 88' Report Summary Attendance 25,489 Referee Peter Green 12 January 2008 Central Coast Mariners 1 2 Newcastle Jets Bluetongue Stadium, Gosford 1900 UTC+11 Kwasnik 9' Report Summary ... Queensland Roar 0 0 Sydney FC Suncorp Stadium, Brisbane 1800 UTC+10 Report Summary Attendance 31,933 Referee Mark Shield 13 January 2008 Perth Glory 3 2 Adelaide United Members Equity Stadium, Perth 1900 ...
1931 FA Cup Final - Match - Summary
... In the sixth minute, Bob Gregg headed Jimmy Cringan's free kick past the stranded West Bromwich Albion goalkeeper, but the linesman flagged Gregg offside and the goal was disallowed newspaper reports suggest the decision was incorrect ... Albion took the lead after 24 minutes when Joe Carter received the ball from Tommy Glidden and took it almost to the by-line before crossing it ...

Famous quotes containing the word summary:

    I have simplified my politics into an utter detestation of all existing governments; and, as it is the shortest and most agreeable and summary feeling imaginable, the first moment of an universal republic would convert me into an advocate for single and uncontradicted despotism. The fact is, riches are power, and poverty is slavery all over the earth, and one sort of establishment is no better, nor worse, for a people than another.
    George Gordon Noel Byron (1788–1824)

    Product of a myriad various minds and contending tongues, compact of obscure and minute association, a language has its own abundant and often recondite laws, in the habitual and summary recognition of which scholarship consists.
    Walter Pater (1839–1894)