Internationalized Domain Name

An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that contains at least one label that is displayed in software applications, in whole or in part, in a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Russian, Tamil or the Latin alphabet-based characters with diacritics, such as French. These writing systems are encoded by computers in multi-byte Unicode. Internationalized domain names are stored in the Domain Name System as ASCII strings using Punycode transcription.

The Domain Name System, which performs a lookup service to translate user-friendly names into network addresses for locating Internet resources, is restricted in practice to the use of ASCII characters, a practical limitation that initially set the standard for acceptable domain names. The internationalization of domain names is a technical solution to translate names written in language-native scripts into an ASCII text representation that is compatible with the Domain Name System. Internationalized domain names can only be used with applications that are specifically designed for such use; they require no changes in the infrastructure of the Internet.

IDN was originally proposed in December 1996 by Martin Dürst and implemented in 1998 by Tan Juay Kwang and Leong Kok Yong under the guidance of T.W. Tan. After much debate and many competing proposals, a system called Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) was adopted as a standard, and has been implemented in several top-level domains.

In IDNA, the term internationalized domain name means specifically any domain name consisting only of labels to which the IDNA ToASCII algorithm (see below) can be successfully applied. In March 2008, the IETF formed a new IDN working group to update the current IDNA protocol.

In October 2009, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) approved the creation of internationalized country code top-level domains (IDN ccTLDs) in the Internet that use the IDNA standard for native language scripts. In May 2010 the first IDN ccTLD were installed in the DNS root zone.

Read more about Internationalized Domain Name:  Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications, Top-level Domain Implementation, Non-IDNA or Non-ICANN Registries That Support Non-ASCII Domain Names, ASCII Spoofing Concerns, Top-level Domains Accepting IDN Registration, Timeline

Other articles related to "internationalized domain name, domain names, internationalized, domain, internationalized domain names, domains, domain name":

Internationalized Domain Name - Timeline
... Method and system for internationalizing domain names ... created the first commercial implementation of an IDN Solution for both domain names and IDN email addresses respectively ... pending application 6182148) started Registration Resolving Multilingual Domain Names ...
Geo TLD - Internationalized Country Codes
... An internationalized country code is similar to a GeoTLD, with two differences it is a domain used exclusively for a sovereign state ... The other difference is that an internationalized country code is considered a ccTLD and not a GeoTLD ...
.in - Internationalized Domain Names and Country Codes
... India plans to introduce internationalized domain names, that is domain names in 22 local languages used in India ... These internationalized domain names will be used together with seven new top domains for India ... These top domains (Devanagari).ਭਾਰਤ (Gurmukhī).ભારત (Gujarati).இந்தியா (Tamil).భారత్ (Telugu ...
Country Code Top-level Domain - Internationalized CcTLDs
... An internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such ... IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, or independent geographic ... IDN ccTLDs in November 2009, and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010 ...
Email Address - Internationalization
... of email addresses, entitled Email Address Internationalization (EAI, also known as IMA – Internationalized Mail Address) ... IETF's EAI Working group published RFC 6530 "Overview and Framework for Internationalized Email", which enabled non-ASCII characters to be used in both the local and domain parts of an email address ... local servers are responsible for the "local" part of the address, whereas the domain portion would be restricted by the rules of internationalized domain names, though still transmitted in UTF-8 ...

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