Integrated Circuit - Introduction


ICs were made possible by experimental discoveries showing that semiconductor devices could perform the functions of vacuum tubes and by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. The integrated circuit's mass production capability, reliability, and building-block approach to circuit design ensured the rapid adoption of standardized Integrated Circuits in place of designs using discrete transistors.

There are two main advantages of ICs over discrete circuits: cost and performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, much less material is used to construct a packaged IC die than to construct a discrete circuit. Performance is high because the components switch quickly and consume little power (compared to their discrete counterparts) as a result of the small size and close proximity of the components. As of 2012, typical chip areas range from a few square millimeters to around 450 mm2, with up to 9 million transistors per mm2.

Read more about this topic:  Integrated Circuit

Other articles related to "introduction":

China Miéville - Bibliography - Nonfiction - Introductions To Fiction By Other Authors
... The Borribles An Introduction, 2001 ... Things That Never Happen An Introduction, 2002 ... Wizardry and Wild An Introduction, 2004 ...
Introduction To Metaphysics
... An Introduction to Metaphysics (Introduction à la Métaphysique) is a 1903 essay by Henri Bergson that explores the concept of reality ...
John Frame (theologian) - Selected Works
... Introduction to Presuppositional Apologetics Part 2 ... Van Til The Theologian, 1976 ISBN 0-916034-02-X Medical Ethics, 1988 ISBN 0-87552-261-0 Perspectives on the Word of God An Introduction ...
Introduction - Music - Songs and Tracks
... Introduction", by Chicago from The Chicago Transit Authority "Introduction", by Hood from Outside Closer "Introduction", by Kajagoogoo from White Feathers "Introduction", by Mike Oldfield from Tubular Bells ...

Famous quotes containing the word introduction:

    My objection to Liberalism is this—that it is the introduction into the practical business of life of the highest kind—namely, politics—of philosophical ideas instead of political principles.
    Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881)

    Such is oftenest the young man’s introduction to the forest, and the most original part of himself. He goes thither at first as a hunter and fisher, until at last, if he has the seeds of a better life in him, he distinguishes his proper objects, as a poet or naturalist it may be, and leaves the gun and fish-pole behind. The mass of men are still and always young in this respect.
    Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

    The role of the stepmother is the most difficult of all, because you can’t ever just be. You’re constantly being tested—by the children, the neighbors, your husband, the relatives, old friends who knew the children’s parents in their first marriage, and by yourself.
    —Anonymous Stepparent. Making It as a Stepparent, by Claire Berman, introduction (1980, repr. 1986)