Herpes simplex (Greek: ἕρπης herpēs, "creeping" or "latent") is a viral disease from the herpesviridae family caused by both Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2). Infection with the herpes virus is categorized into one of several distinct disorders based on the site of infection. Oral herpes, the visible symptoms of which are colloquially called cold sores or fever blisters, is an infection of the face or mouth. Oral herpes is the most common form of infection. Genital herpes, known simply as herpes, is the second most common form of herpes. Other disorders such as herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, ocular herpes, cerebral herpes infection encephalitis, Mollaret's meningitis, neonatal herpes, and possibly Bell's palsy are all caused by herpes simplex viruses.

Herpes viruses cycle between periods of active disease—presenting as blisters containing infectious virus particles—that last 2–21 days, followed by a remission period. Genital herpes, however, is often asymptomatic, though viral shedding may still occur. After initial infection, the viruses are transported along sensory nerves to the sensory nerve cell bodies, where they become latent and reside lifelong. Causes of recurrence are uncertain, though some potential triggers have been identified, including immunosuppressant drugs. The previously latent virus then multiplies new virus particles in the nerve cell and these are transported along the axon of each neuron to the nerve terminals in the skin, where they are released. Over time, episodes of active disease reduce in frequency and severity.

Herpes simplex is most easily transmitted by direct contact with a lesion or the body fluid of an infected individual. Transmission may also occur through skin-to-skin contact during periods of asymptomatic shedding. Barrier protection methods are the most reliable method of preventing transmission of herpes, but they merely reduce rather than eliminate risk. Oral herpes is easily diagnosed if the patient presents with visible sores or ulcers. Early stages of orofacial herpes and genital herpes are harder to diagnose; laboratory testing is usually required.

A cure for herpes has not yet been developed. Once infected, the virus remains in the body for life. Recurrent infections (outbreaks) may occur from time to time, especially in times of immune impairment such as HIV and cancer-related immune suppression. However, after several years, outbreaks become less severe and more sporadic, and some people will become perpetually asymptomatic and will no longer experience outbreaks, though they may still be contagious to others. Treatments with antivirals can reduce viral shedding and alleviate the severity of symptomatic episodes. It should not be confused with conditions caused by other viruses in the herpesviridae family such as herpes zoster, which is caused by varicella zoster virus. The differential diagnosis includes hand, foot and mouth disease due to similar lesions on the skin.

Read more about Herpes:  Classification, Signs and Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Prevention, Treatment, Prognosis, Epidemiology, History, Society and Culture, Research

Other articles related to "herpes":

Mouth Disease - Herpes
... Another very common disorder of the oral cavity is herpes simplex infection (HSV) ... This virus causes blisters and sores around the mouth and lips ...
Herpes Labialis - Causes
... Herpes labialis infection occurs when the herpes simplex virus comes into contact with oral mucosal tissue or abraded skin of the mouth ... Infection by the type 1 strain of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is most common however, cases of oral infection by the type 2 strain are increasing ... cause a severe disease called Neonatal herpes simplex ...
History of Herpes Support Groups
... Support for people with herpes arose from the work of the American Social Health Association (ASHA) ... One of the diseases that increased dramatically was genital herpes ... In response, ASHA created the National Herpes Resource Center in 1979 ...
Sub-clinical - List of Subclinical Infections
... virus Group A streptococcal infection Helicobacter pylori Herpes simplex (oral herpes, genital herpes, etc.) HIV-1 (AIDS) Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires ...
Herpes - Research
... approach uses a specially designed RNA enzyme to inhibit strains of the herpes simplex virus ... but further research is required before it can be attempted in people infected with herpes ... that can be made to mirror their target genetic material, namely herpes microRNAs ...