Greek Fire

Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines typically used it in naval battles to great effect as it could continue burning while floating on water. It provided a technological advantage, and was responsible for many key Byzantine military victories, most notably the salvation of Constantinople from two Arab sieges, thus securing the Empire's survival.

The impression made by Greek fire on the west European Crusaders was such that the name was applied to any sort of incendiary weapon, including those used by Arabs, the Chinese, and the Mongols. These, however, were different mixtures and not the Byzantine formula, which was a closely guarded state secret, a secret that has been lost. The composition of Greek fire remains a matter of speculation and debate, with proposals including combinations of pine resin, naphtha, quicklime, sulphur, or niter. Byzantine use of incendiary mixtures was distinguished by the use of pressurized siphons to project the liquid onto the enemy.

Although the term "Greek fire" has been general in English and most other languages since the Crusades, in the original Byzantine sources it is called by a variety of names, such as "sea fire" (Ancient Greek: πῦρ θαλάσσιον), "Roman fire" (πῦρ ῥωμαϊκόν), "war fire" (πολεμικὸν πῦρ), "liquid fire" (ὑγρὸν πῦρ), or "manufactured fire" (πῦρ σκευαστόν).

Read more about Greek Fire:  History, Methods of Deployment, Effectiveness and Countermeasures

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... Also on trial are Greek scholar Simon Aristides, and his daughter Kristina, Sinbad's childhood friend, who has been wrongfully accused of stealing ... Sinbad reveals to the Khalif that Simon possesses the formula for an explosive called "Greek fire" and will share it with the Khalif in exchange for Simon's, Kristina's, Omar ... in the dungeon, Simon and Kristina give the ruler a private demonstration of Greek fire ...
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... Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Byzantine Empire ... Greek fire proper however was invented in c ...
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... What is here called 'Greek fire' bears similarities to dynamite (e.g ... Greek fire was a real medieval weapon however it was unknown in England ...
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... Although the destructiveness of Greek fire is indisputable, it should not be seen as some sort of "wonder weapon", nor did it make the Byzantine navy ... While Greek fire remained a potent weapon, its limitations were significant when compared to more traditional forms of artillery in its siphon-deployed version, it had a limited range, and it could ...

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