Geocentrism and Rival Systems
Not all Greeks agreed with the geocentric model. The Pythagorean system has already been mentioned; some Pythagoreans believed the Earth to be one of several planets going around a central fire. Hicetas and Ecphantus, two Pythagoreans of the 5th century BC, and Heraclides Ponticus in the 4th century BC, believed that the Earth rotated on its axis but remained at the center of the universe. Such a system still qualifies as geocentric. It was revived in the Middle Ages by Jean Buridan. Heraclides Ponticus was once thought to have proposed that both Venus and Mercury went around the Sun rather than the Earth, but this is no longer accepted. Martianus Capella definitely put Mercury and Venus in orbit around the Sun. Aristarchus of Samos was the most radical. He wrote a work, which has not survived, on heliocentrism, saying that the Sun was at the center of the universe, while the Earth and other planets revolved around it. His theory was not popular, and he had one named follower, Seleucus of Seleucia.
Read more about this topic: Geocentric Model
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... In 1543, the geocentric system met its first serious challenge with the publication of Copernicus' De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, which posited that the Earth and the other planets instead revolved ... The geocentric system was still held for many years afterwards, as at the time the Copernican system did not offer better predictions than the geocentric ... The Copernican system was no more accurate than Ptolemy's system, because it still used circular orbits ...
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