Estrogen

Estrogen

Estrogens (AmE), or oestrogen (BE), are a group of compounds named for their importance in the estrous cycle of humans and other animals. They are the primary female sex hormones. Natural estrogens are steroid hormones, while some synthetic ones are non-steroidal. The name comes from the Greek οἶστρος (oistros), literally meaning "gadfly" but figuratively sexual passion or desire, and the suffix -gen, meaning "producer of".

Estrogens are synthesized in all vertebrates as well as some insects. Their presence in both vertebrates and insects suggests that estrogenic sex hormones have an ancient evolutionary history.

Estrogens are used as part of some oral contraceptives, in estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women, and in hormone replacement therapy for trans women.

Like all steroid hormones, estrogens readily diffuse across the cell membrane. Once inside the cell, they bind to and activate estrogen receptors which in turn modulate the expression of many genes. Additionally, estrogens have been shown to activate a G protein-coupled receptor, GPR30.

Read more about EstrogenBiosynthesis, Function, Cosmetics, History, Environmental Effects

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Aromatase Deficiency - See Also
... pseudohermaphroditism, and ambiguous genitalia Congenital estrogen deficiency Estrogen insensitivity syndrome Hypogonadism (hypoestrogenism and hypoandrogenism) Hypergonadism (hyperestrogenism and ...
Lipoprotein(a) - Treatment
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Estrogen - Environmental Effects
... Estrogens are among the wide range of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) because they have high estrogenic potency ... The estrogen excreted from farm animals makes its way into fresh water systems ... During the germination period of reproduction the fish are exposed to low levels of estrogen which may cause reproductive dysfunction to male fish ...
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... level of KCNN3 is dependent on hormonal regulation, particularly by the sex hormone estrogen ... Estrogen not only enhances transcription of the KCNN3 gene, but also affects the activity of KCa2.3 channels on the cell membrane ... In GABAergic preoptic area neurons, estrogen enhanced the ability of α1 adrenergic receptors to inhibit KCa2.3 activity, increasing cell excitability ...