Emancipation Proclamation

The Emancipation Proclamation is an executive order issued to the executive agencies of the United States by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, during the American Civil War. It was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces; it was not a law passed by Congress. It proclaimed all slaves in Confederate territory to be forever free; that is, it ordered the Army to treat as free men the slaves in ten states that were still in rebellion, thus applying to 3.1 million of the 4 million slaves in the U.S. The Proclamation immediately resulted in the freeing of 50,000 slaves, with nearly all the rest (of the 3.1 million) actively freed as Union armies advanced. The Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not itself outlaw slavery, and did not make the ex-slaves (called freedmen) citizens. It made the destruction of slavery an explicit war goal, in addition to the goal of reuniting the Union.

On September 22, 1862, Lincoln issued a preliminary proclamation that he would order the emancipation of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America that did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863. None returned, and the order, signed and issued January 1, 1863, took effect except in locations where the Union had already mostly regained control. The Proclamation made abolition a central goal of the war (in addition to the original, officially-stated goal of maintaining the Union), outraged white Southerners who envisioned a race war, angered some Northern Democrats, energized anti-slavery forces, and weakened forces in Europe that wanted to intervene to help the Confederacy.

Slavery was made illegal everywhere in the U.S. by the Thirteenth Amendment, which took effect in December 1865.

Read more about Emancipation ProclamationAuthority, Coverage, Background, Drafting and Issuance of The Proclamation, Implementation, Gettysburg Address, Postbellum

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Presidency Of Abraham Lincoln - Emancipation Proclamation
... Lincoln implemented the new law by his "Emancipation Proclamation." Lincoln is well known for ending slavery in the United States ... The Emancipation Proclamation, announced on September 22 and put in effect January 1, 1863, freed slaves in territories not under Union control ... The proclamation made abolishing slavery in the rebel states an official war goal ...
Emancipation Proclamation - Legacy - Critiques
... unfair towards blacks, cynicism towards Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation increased ... Du Bois, James Baldwin and Julius Lester, described the proclamation as essentially worthless ... Lincoln was a white supremacist who issued the Emancipation Proclamation in lieu of the real racial reforms for which radical abolitionists pushed ...
Opposition To The American Civil War: The Peace Movement And Draft Opposition - Northern Opposition - Draft Dodgers
... Many, however, were against the emancipation proclamation and sided with the northern Democrats ... increase in strength brought on by the emancipation proclamation ... of precisely why they must keep up the fight” Conversely, the emancipation changed what Union soldiers were fighting for dramatically ...
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War Governors' Conference - History of The Meeting
... The commander-in-chief wished to release a proclamation that would free the slaves in the southern states, but was afraid to do so for fear that the Union's border ... If he issued the proclamation prematurely, it would appear as a last cry for help to both the country and the world ... a military victory so that could announce the Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation ...

Famous quotes containing the words proclamation and/or emancipation:

    The President’s proclamation took the breath out of me this morning. He is in the hands of the Phillistines [sic] ...
    Elizabeth Blair Lee (1818–?)

    The sanctity of womanhood is incompatible with social liberty and social claims; and for a woman emancipation means corruption.
    Honoré De Balzac (1799–1850)