Older Romanian etymological dictionaries tended to assume a borrowing in many cases, usually from a Slavic language or from Hungarian, but etymological analysis may show that, in many cases, the direction of borrowing was from Romanian to the neighboring languages. The current Dicţionar explicativ (the DEX) published by the Romanian Academy continues to list many words as borrowings, though the work of other linguists (Sorin Olteanu, Sorin Paliga, Ivan Duridanov, et al.) may indicate that a number of these are in fact indigenous, from local Indo-European languages.
Though the substratum status of many Romanian words is not much disputed, their status as Dacian words is controversial, some more than others. There are no significant surviving written examples of the Dacian language, so it is difficult to verify in most cases whether a given Romanian word is actually from Dacian or not. Many linguists however favor a Dacian source for the Romanian substratum. Many of the Romanian substratum words have Albanian cognates, and if these words are in fact Dacian, it indicates that the Dacian language may have been on the same branch as Albanian.
The Bulgarian Thracologist Vladimir Georgiev helped develop the theory that the Romanian language has a Daco-Moesian language as its substrate, a tongue which had a number of features which distinguished it from the Thracian language spoken further south, across the Haemus range.
Other Romanian words which are argued to be indigenous have close Slavic correspondences:baltă, daltă, sută etc., though some of these also have Albanian cognates:baltë, daltë. If such words are actually indigenous, then the Slavic correspondences are in line with the Daco-Thracian corpus, Slavic cognates existing for a number of Daco-Thracian words (Dacian diesema considered to be cognate to divizna, from Slavic languages, etc.). Also possible are a limited number of borrowings from a North Thracian (Dacian) dialect into Proto-Slavic (Pre-Expansion Slavic) as early as the 3rd-4th century AD.
Read more about this topic: Eastern Romance Substratum
Other articles related to "lexical items, items, lexical, lexical item":
... While the majority of lexical items in Quebec French exist in other dialects of French, many words and expressions are unique to Quebec ... from English and Native American can be reflected in any of these five lexically specific items (québécismes lexématiques), which do not exist in other varieties of French semantic ... Examples of lexically specific items Quebec French Metropolitan French English gloss abrier couvrir to cover astheure (à c't'heure) maintenant now chum (m) copain (m) boyfriend magasiner faire des courses ...
... structure of the sentence is held together by functional items, with the lexical items filling in the blanks ... Thus, functionally salient lexical items will eventually set off a push chain conveyor belt pressure in functional space, sending functionally close-by affixes down the path of attrition ... of agglutinating clitics of non-standard oral French from erstwhile lexical pronouns, setting off the attrition of functionally equivalent fusional means of inflection inherited from ...
... A lexical item (or lexical unit, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (=catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon (≈vocabulary) ... Lexical items can be generally understood to convey a single meaning, much as a lexeme, but are not limited to single words ... Lexical items are like semes in that they are "natural units" translating between languages, or in learning a new language ...
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