DNA Profiling

DNA profiling (also called DNA testing, DNA typing, or genetic fingerprinting) is a technique employed by forensic scientists to assist in the identification of individuals by their respective DNA profiles. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup, which can also be used as the person's identifier. DNA profiling should not be confused with full genome sequencing. It is used in, for example, parental testing and criminal investigation.

Although 99.9% of human DNA sequences are the same in every person, enough of the DNA is different to distinguish one individual from another, unless they are monozygotic twins. DNA profiling uses repetitive ("repeat") sequences that are highly variable, called variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs), particularly short tandem repeats (STRs). VNTR loci are very similar between closely related humans, but so variable that unrelated individuals are extremely unlikely to have the same VNTRs.

The DNA profiling technique was first reported in 1984 by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester in England, and is now the basis of several national DNA databases. Dr. Jeffreys's genetic fingerprinting was made commercially available in 1987, when a chemical company, Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI), started a blood-testing centre in England.

Read more about DNA ProfilingDNA Profiling Process, DNA Databases, Considerations When Evaluating DNA Evidence, Fake DNA Evidence, DNA Evidence As Evidence in Criminal Trials, Cases

Other articles related to "dna profiling, dna":

Second Generation Multiplex
... Second Generation Multiplex is a DNA profiling system used in the United Kingdom to set up the UK National DNA Database in 1995. 5-FAM JOE NED Its use in the United kingdom as the DNA profiling system used by The UK National DNA Database was superseded by the Second Generation Multiplex Plus SGM+ DNA profiling system in ...
DNA Profiling - Cases
... Virginia hospital following a medical procedure were tested using DNA fingerprinting, and showed that she bore no relation to the Romanovs ... despite having admitted to the rape and murder of a teenager near Leicester, the city where DNA profiling was first discovered ... This was the first use of DNA finger printing in a criminal investigation ...
Deoxyribonucleic Acid - Uses in Technology - Forensics
... Further information DNA profiling Forensic scientists can use DNA in blood, semen, skin, saliva or hair found at a crime scene to identify a matching DNA of an individual, such as a perpetrator ... This process is formally termed DNA profiling, but may also be called "genetic fingerprinting" ... In DNA profiling, the lengths of variable sections of repetitive DNA, such as short tandem repeats and minisatellites, are compared between people ...
Parental Testing - DNA Profiling
... The DNA of an individual is very nearly the same in each and every somatic (nonreproductive) cell ... Sexual reproduction brings the DNA of both parents together randomly to create a unique combination of genetic material in a new cell, so the genetic material of an individual is derived ... Comparing the DNA sequence of an individual to that of another individual can show whether one of them was derived from the other ...

Famous quotes containing the word dna:

    Here [in London, history] ... seemed the very fabric of things, as if the city were a single growth of stone and brick, uncounted strata of message and meaning, age upon age, generated over the centuries to the dictates of some now all-but-unreadable DNA of commerce and empire.
    William Gibson (b. 1948)