In addition to dipoles in electrostatics, it is also common to consider an electric or magnetic dipole that is oscillating in time.

In particular, a harmonically oscillating electric dipole is described by a dipole moment of the form

where ω is the angular frequency. In vacuum, this produces fields:

$mathbf{E} = frac{1}{4pivarepsilon_0} left{ frac{omega^2}{c^2 r} ( hat{mathbf{r}} times mathbf{p} ) times hat{mathbf{r}} + left( frac{1}{r^3} - frac{iomega}{cr^2} right) left right} e^{iomega r/c}$

Far away (for ), the fields approach the limiting form of a radiating spherical wave:

which produces a total time-average radiated power P given by

This power is not distributed isotropically, but is rather concentrated around the directions lying perpendicular to the dipole moment. Usually such equations are described by spherical harmonics, but they look very different. A circular polarized dipole is described as a superposition of two linear dipoles.