Constitution Of Thailand
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: รัฐธรรมนูญแห่งราชอาณาจักรไทย; RTGS: Rattha Thammanun Haeng Ratcha Anachak Thai) is supposed to be the supreme law of Thailand. Yet since a forced change from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional democracy in 1932, Thailand has had seventeen charters and constitutions, many installed following a military coups, which reflects a high degree of political instability. After each successful coup military regimes abrogated existing constitutions and promulgated new ones, often with new provisions inserted that favor the military regime and its supporters.
All of Thailand's charters and constitutions have allowed a constitutional monarchy, but with widely differing balances of power between the branches of government. Most of them have stipulated parliamentary systems. However, several of them also called for dictatorships, e.g., the 1957 Charter. Both unicameral and bicameral parliaments have been used, and members of parliament have been both elected and appointed. The direct powers of the monarch have also varied considerably.
Thailand's current constitution was promulgated in 2007, replacing an interim constitution promulgated in 2006 after the army-led September 2006 Thailand coup. The 2007 Constitution was written by a junta-appointed group of drafters, but was approved by a public referendum. Prior to the referendum, the junta passed a law making it illegal to publicly criticize the draft. Controversial features in the constitution included a partly appointed Senate and amnesty for the leaders of the 2006 coup.
The 1997 Constitution, often called the "People's Constitution," was considered a landmark in terms of the degree of public participation involved in its drafting as well as the democratic nature of its articles. It stipulated a bicameral legislature, both houses of which were elected. Many human rights were explicitly acknowledged for the first time, and measures were established to increase the stability of elected governments.
Read more about Constitution Of Thailand: Overview, 1932 Temporary Charter, 1932 Constitution, 1946 Constitution, 1947 Charter, 1949 Constitution, 1952 Constitution, 1959 Charter, 1968 Constitution, 1972 Temporary Charter, 1974 Constitution, 1976 Constitution, 1977 Charter, 1978 Constitution, 1991 Constitutions, 1997 Constitution, 2007 Constitution, Etymology
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... The word "constitution" in Thai (รัฐธรรมนูญ IPA /rat.tʰa.tʰam.ma.nuːn/, RTGS Ratha thama nun) can literally be translated as "ru ...
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“The Constitution and the laws are supreme and the Union indissoluble.”
—Andrew Jackson (17671845)