Combustion ( /kəmˈbʌs.tʃən/) or burning is the sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat and conversion of chemical species. The release of heat can produce light in the form of either glowing or a flame. Fuels of interest often include organic compounds (especially hydrocarbons) in the gas, liquid or solid phase.
In a complete combustion reaction, a compound reacts with an oxidizing element, such as oxygen or fluorine, and the products are compounds of each element in the fuel with the oxidizing element. For example:
- CH4 + 2 O2 → CO2 + 2 H2O + energy
A simple example can be seen in the combustion of hydrogen and oxygen, which is a commonly used reaction in rocket engines:
- 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O(g) + heat
The result is water vapor.
Complete combustion is almost impossible to achieve. In reality, as actual combustion reactions come to equilibrium, a wide variety of major and minor species will be present such as carbon monoxide and pure carbon (soot or ash). Additionally, any combustion in atmospheric air, which is 78 percent nitrogen, will also create several forms of nitrogen oxides.
Other articles related to "combustion":
... Combustion Resources, Inc ... services in the fields of fuel and combustion, such as testing of flow and mixing systems, reactor design, gas and particle sampling, gasification modeling, and shale oil extraction design and testing ... The company was incorporated in 1995 as a spin-off from the Center for Advanced Combustion Engineering Research, joint collaboration between Brigham ...
... Staged combustion dates back to the hot bulb engine of the 1890s ... The first stage of combustion occurred inside the hot bulb and the hot gases were then forced out into the cylinder, where they mixed with additional air ... At this time, staged combustion was used because it was a convenient method of ignition and it is unlikely that there would have been much concern about air pollution ...
... The "Inglis" modification adds an extra combustion chamber where an additional single large flue returns from the rear to the front of the boiler ... Multiple furnaces would share a single combustion chamber ... Surprisingly this is not from the additional combustion chamber, but from lengthening the narrow firetubes ...
... Combustion instabilities are typically violent pressure oscillations in a combustion chamber ... instabilities led to massive damage of the combustion chamber and surrounding components ... Combustion instabilities are a major concern in ground-based gas turbine engines because of NOx emissions ...
... The far end of the furnace is an enclosed box called the combustion chamber which extends upwards to link up with the firetubes ... The front wall of the combustion chamber is supported against steam pressure by the tubes themselves ... Above the combustion chamber and tubes is an open steam collecting space ...
Famous quotes containing the word combustion:
“The night has been unruly. Where we lay,
Our chimneys were blown down, and, as they say,
Lamentings heard i th air, strange screams of death,
And prophesying with accents terrible
Of dire combustion and confused events,
New-hatched to the woeful time.”
—William Shakespeare (15641616)
“Him the Almighty Power
Hurld headlong flaming from th Ethereal Skie
With hideous ruine and combustion down
To bottomless perdition, there to dwell
In Adamantine Chains and penal Fire,
Who durst defie th Omnipotent to Arms.
Nine times the Space that measures Day and Night
To mortal men, he with his horrid crew
Lay vanquisht, rowling in the fiery Gulfe”
—John Milton (16081674)