The Columbia River Treaty is an agreement between Canada and the United States on the development and operation of dams in the upper Columbia River basin for power and flood control benefits in both countries. Four dams were constructed under this treaty: three in Canada (Duncan Dam, Mica Dam, Keenleyside Dam) and one in the United States (Libby Dam). The treaty provided for both the construction of these dams as well as the regulation of the power produced in the Columbia River generating complex. The long-term impacts of the treaty have been mixed: while the dams provided economic benefits through hydroelectric generation and flood control, there are longstanding concerns regarding social costs to the local aboriginal communities, and the environmental effects associated with the construction of large dams.
... Unlike the Columbia's Canadian reach, the US portion of the river had already been heavily developed by the time the treaty entered into force ... While in the Upper Columbia, treaty dams meant the filling of large reservoirs, submerging large tracts of land, on the Lower Columbia no new dams had to be built ... The US was authorized to build this optional dam on the Kootenay River, a tributary of the Columbia ...
... In 1961, British Columbia ratified the Columbia River Treaty which required the building of three large dams in British Columbia in return for financial ... The dams flooded large areas within British Columbia, but would prove to a very stable and renewable source of power for the province ...
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