Cholinergic

In general, the word choline refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. Found in most animal tissues, choline is a primary component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and functions with inositol as a basic constituent of lecithin. It prevents fat deposits in the liver and facilitates the movement of fats into the cells. The richest sources of choline are liver, kidneys, brains, wheat germ, brewer's yeast, and egg yolk. Therefore, cholinergic typically refers to acetylcholine in the neurological sense. The parasympathetic nervous system, which uses acetylcholine almost exclusively to send its messages, is said to be almost entirely cholinergic. Neuromuscular junctions, preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, the basal forebrain, and brain stem complexes are also cholinergic. In addition, the receptor for the merocrine sweat glands are also cholinergic, since acetylcholine is released from post-ganglionic sympathetic neurons.

In neuroscience and related fields, the term cholinergic is used in the following related contexts:

  • A substance (or ligand) is cholinergic if it is capable of producing, altering, or releasing acetylcholine ("indirect-acting") or mimicking its behaviour at one or more of the body's acetylcholine receptor types ("direct-acting").
  • A receptor is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter.
  • A synapse is cholinergic if it uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter.

Other articles related to "cholinergic":

Alex Karczmar - Scientific Achievements
... His text, Exploring the Vertebrate Central Cholinergic Nervous System (Springer, New York, 2007) reviews the past and the present status of central cholinergicity, its ... to conceptualize on the pre-neurogenetic appearance of components of the cholinergic system, their non-parallel ontogenesis and its significance, and their omni-existent phylogenesis which ... Karczmar pioneered also the studies of the structural nature of central cholinergic receptors by demonstrating the structural similarity between peripheral and central muscarinic receptors (Karczma ...
Biochemistry Of Alzheimer's Disease - Disease Mechanism - Cholinergic Hypothesis
... The oldest hypothesis is the "cholinergic hypothesis" ... Much early therapeutic research was based on this hypothesis, including restoration of the "cholinergic nuclei" ... More recently, cholinergic effects have been proposed as a potential causative agent for the formation of plaques and tangles leading to generalized neuroinflammation ...
Cholinergic Drug - Structure Activity Relationship For Cholinergic Drugs
2 ... For maximum potency, the size of the alkyl groups substituted on the Nitrogen should exceed the size of a methyl group ...
Cholinergic Crisis
... A cholinergic crisis is an over-stimulation at a neuromuscular junction due to an excess of acetylcholine (ACh), as of a result of the inactivity (perhaps even inhibition ... As a result of cholinergic crisis, the muscles stop responding to the bombardment of ACh, leading to flaccid paralysis, respiratory failure, and other signs and symptoms reminiscent ... Flaccid paralysis resulting from cholinergic crisis can be distinguished from myasthenia gravis by the use of the drug edrophonium (Tensilon), which worsens the paralysis caused by ...
Toxidrome - Cholinergic
... The symptoms of a cholinergic toxidrome include bronchorrhea, confusion, defecation, diaphoresis, diarrhea, emesis, lacrimation, miosis, muscle fasciculations, salivation, seizures, urination, and weakness ...