Choline

Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient. It is usually grouped within the B-complex vitamins. Choline generally refers to the various quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation. (X− on the right denotes an undefined counteranion).

The cation appears in the head groups of phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin, two classes of phospholipid that are abundant in cell membranes. Choline is the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine which is involved in many functions including memory and muscle control.

Choline must be consumed through the diet in order for the body to remain healthy. It is used in the synthesis of the constructional components in the body's cell membranes. Despite the perceived benefits of choline, dietary recommendations have discouraged people from eating certain high choline foods, such as egg and fatty meats. The 2005 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey stated that only 2% of postmenopausal women consume the recommended intake for choline.

Read more about Choline:  History, Recent Research, Chemistry, Additional Images

Other articles related to "choline":

Sphingosine Cholinephosphotransferase
... EC 2.7.8.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CDP-choline + sphingosine CMP + sphingosyl-phosphocholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are CDP-cholin ... Other names in common use include CDP-choline-sphingosine cholinephosphotransferase, phosphorylcholine-sphingosine transferase, cytidine diphosphocholine-sphingosine cholinephosphotransferase ...
Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis - Diagnosis - Proton MR Spectroscopy (H-MRS)
... of metabolic products of neural tissue including choline, creatine, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), mobile lipids and lactic acid ... there is breakdown of cell membranes resulting in an increase in the level of choline ... As such, the levels of choline and NAA can be measured to determine if there is demyelination activity and inflammation in the brain ...
Choline Kinase
... Choline Kinase (also known as CK,ChoK and Choline Phosphokinase) is an enzyme which catalyzes the first reaction in the choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis.This reaction ... ATP + choline ADP + O-phosphocholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and choline, whereas its two products are ADP and O-phosphocholine.Choline Kinase requires magnesium ions (+2) as a cofactor for this ... A related enzyme, ethanolamine kinase tends to co-purify with choline kinase leading to a suggestion that the two activities are mediated by two distinct ...
Choline - Additional Images
... Choline (C5H14NO+) Choline chloride Choline hydroxide. ...
Sinapine Esterase
... that catalyzes the chemical reaction sinapoylcholine + H2O sinapate + choline Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are sinapoylcholine and H2O, whereas its two products are sinapate and choline ... This enzyme is also called aromatic choline esterase ...