Calculator - Internal Working

Internal Working

In general, a basic electronic calculator consists of the following components:

  • Power source (battery or solar cell)
  • Keypad - consists of keys used to input numbers and function commands (addition, multiplication, square-root, etc.)
  • Processor chip (microprocessor) contains:
    • Scanning unit - when a calculator is powered on, it scans the keypad waiting to pick up an electrical signal when a key is pressed.
    • Encoder unit - converts the numbers and functions into binary code.
    • X register and Y register - They are number stores where numbers are stored temporarily while doing calculations. All numbers go into the X register first. The number in the X register is shown on the display.
    • Flag register - The function for the calculation is stored here until the calculator needs it.
    • Permanent memory (ROM)- The instructions for in-built functions (arithmetic operations, square roots, percentages, trigonometry etc.) are stored here in binary form. These instructions are "programs" stored permanently and cannot be erased.
    • User memory (RAM) - The store where numbers can be stored by the user. User memory contents can be changed or erased by the user.
    • Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) - The ALU executes all arithmetic and logic instructions, and provides the results in binary coded form.
    • Decoder unit - converts binary code into "decimal" numbers which can be displayed on the display unit.
  • Display panel - displays input numbers, commands and results. Seven stripes (segments) are used to represent each digit in a basic calculator.

Read more about this topic:  Calculator

Other articles related to "internal working, internal":

Attachment Theory - Attachment Patterns - Significance of Attachment Patterns
... early attachment classifications may lie in the internal working model mechanism ... Internal models are not just "pictures" but refer to the feelings aroused ... The internal working models on which attachment behaviour is based show a degree of continuity and stability ...

Famous quotes containing the words working and/or internal:

    The finest workers in stone are not copper or steel tools, but the gentle touches of air and water working at their leisure with a liberal allowance of time.
    Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

    You will see Coleridge—he who sits obscure
    In the exceeding lustre and the pure
    Intense irradiation of a mind,
    Which, with its own internal lightning blind,
    Flags wearily through darkness and despair—
    A cloud-encircled meteor of the air,
    A hooded eagle among blinking owls.
    Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792–1822)