Borrelia Burgdorferi

Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia, which has a double-membrane envelope. B. burgdorferi is predominant in North America, but also exists in Europe, and is the agent of Lyme disease.

Lyme disease is a zoonotic, vector-borne disease transmitted by the Ixodes tick (also the vector for Babesia); the causative agent is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. B. burgdorferi is one of the few pathogenic bacteria that can survive without iron, having replaced all of its iron-sulfur cluster enzymes with enzymes that use manganese, thus avoiding the problem many pathogenic bacteria face in acquiring iron. It takes more than 24 hours of attachment for transfer of B. burgdorferi, making regular "tick checks" helpful in preventing infection.

B. burgdorferi infections have been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

B. burgdorferi (B31 strain) was the third microbial genome ever sequenced, following the sequencing of both Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma genitalium in 1995, and contains 910,725 base pairs and 853 genes. The sequencing method used was whole genome shotgun. The sequencing project, completed and published in Nature in 1997, was conducted at The Institute for Genomic Research.

Lyme disease clinical features include the characteristic bull's eye rash and erythema chronicum migrans (a rash which spreads peripherally and spares the central part), as well as myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, arrythmia, arthritis, arthralgia, meningitis, neuropathies and facial nerve palsy.

It is common in the northeastern, midwest and western United States.

Other articles related to "burgdorferi, borrelia burgdorferi, borrelia":

Lyme Disease - Epidemiology - United States
... burgdorferi 2) two-tier testing (ELISA screening and Western blot confirming) or 3) single-tier IgG (old infection) Western blot ... burgdorferi sensu lato was previously thought to be hindered in its ability to be maintained in an enzootic cycle in California, because it was assumed the ... burgdorferi in local tick populations this has since been brought into question, as some evidence has suggested lizards can become infected ...
Lyme Disease Microbiology - Epidemiology
... burgdorferi sensu lato-infected ticks are found predominantly in Norway, Netherlands, Germany, France, Italy, Slovenia, and Poland, but have been ... Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infested ticks are being found more frequently in Japan, as well as in northwest China and far eastern Russia ... Borrelia has been isolated in Mongolia as well ...
Ixodes Holocyclus - Vector Competence - Bacterial Diseases - Lyme-like Spirochaetal Disease in Australia
... The most common name for this spirochaete is Borrelia burgdorferi, but many different Borrelia species cause Lyme Disease worldwide ... An Australian spirochaete has not been found in humans yet, and may be quite different from Borrelia burgdorferi ... studies have been undertaken on Ixodes holocyclus with respect to the Lyme disease pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (with a United States strain) ...
Lyme Disease - Cause
... Lyme disease is caused by spirochetal bacteria from the genus Borrelia ... Because of their double-membrane envelope, Borrelia are often mistakenly described as Gram negative despite the considerable differences in their envelope components with Gram-negative bacteria ... The Borrelia species that are Lyme-related are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and show a great deal of genetic diversity ...