Block Cipher Modes Of Operation
In cryptography, modes of operation is the procedure of enabling the repeated and secure use of a block cipher under a single key. A block cipher by itself allows encryption only of a single data block of the cipher's block length. When targeting a variable-length message, the data must first be partitioned into separate cipher blocks. Typically, the last block must also be extended to match the cipher's block length using a suitable padding scheme. A mode of operation describes the process of encrypting each of these blocks, and generally uses randomization based on an additional input value, often called an initialization vector, to allow doing so safely.
Modes of operation have primarily been defined for encryption and authentication. Historically, encryption modes have been studied extensively in regard to their error propagation properties under various scenarios of data modification. Later development regarded integrity protection as an entirely separate cryptographic goal from encryption. Some modern modes of operation combine encryption and authentication in an efficient way, and are known as authenticated encryption modes.
While modes of operation are commonly associated with symmetric encryption, they may also be applied to public-key encryption primitives such as RSA in principle (though in practice public-key encryption of longer messages is generally realized using hybrid encryption).
Read more about Block Cipher Modes Of Operation: History and Standardization, Initialization Vector (IV), Padding, Electronic Codebook (ECB), Cipher-block Chaining (CBC), Propagating Cipher-block Chaining (PCBC), Cipher Feedback (CFB), Output Feedback (OFB), Counter (CTR), Error Propagation, Authenticated Encryption, Other Modes and Other Cryptographic Primitives
Other articles related to "block cipher modes of operation, modes of operation, block ciphers, mode, modes":
... Many more modes of operation for block ciphers have been suggested ... or authenticated encryption - for example Key Feedback Mode (KFM) and AES-hash ... NIST maintains a list of proposed modes for block ciphers at Modes Development ...
Famous quotes containing the words operation, modes, cipher and/or block:
“It requires a surgical operation to get a joke well into a Scotch understanding. The only idea of wit, or rather that inferior variety of the electric talent which prevails occasionally in the North, and which, under the name of Wut, is so infinitely distressing to people of good taste, is laughing immoderately at stated intervals.”
—Sydney Smith (17711845)
“The history of reform is always identical; it is the comparison of the idea with the fact. Our modes of living are not agreeable to our imagination. We suspect they are unworthy. We arraign our daily employments.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“It is not an arbitrary decree of God, but in the nature of man, that a veil shuts down on the facts of to-morrow; for the soul will not have us read any other cipher than that of cause and effect. By this veil, which curtains events, it instructs the children of men to live in to-day.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“Being dismantled before our eyes are not just individual programs that politicians cite as too expensive but the whole idea that society has a stake in the well-being of children down the block and the security of families on the other side of town. Whether or not kids eat well, are nurtured and have a roof over their heads is not just a consequence of how their parents behave. It is also a responsibility of societybut now apparently a diminishing one.”
—Richard B. Stolley (20th century)