Bile or gall is a bitter-tasting, dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the process of digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In many species, bile is stored in the gallbladder and upon eating is discharged into the duodenum. Bile is a composition of the following materials: water (85%), bile salts (10%), mucus and pigments (3%), fats (1%), inorganic salts (0.7%) and cholesterol (0.3%).
In the medical theories prevalent in the West from Classical Antiquity up to the Middle Ages, the body's health depended on the equilibrium between four "humors" or vital fluids: blood, phlegm, "yellow bile" (or choler) and "black bile". Excesses of the last two humors were thought to produce aggression and depression, respectively; and the Greek names for them gave rise to the English words "cholera" and "melancholia". Those same theories explain the derivation of the English word "bilious" from "bile", and the meaning of "gall" in English as "exasperation" or "impudence".
Other articles related to "bile":
... these friable concretions of various shapes and sizes within the biliary tree, the bile is often muddy in consistency and contains numerous fine particles of calcium bilirubinate ... in RPC has been attributed to the high incidence of infection with Escherichia coli in the bile ... In humans, the majority of bilirubin is excreted in the bile as bilirubin glucuronide ...
... The SeHCAT test is used to investigate patients with suspected bile acid malabsorption, who usually experience chronic diarrhea, often passing watery feces 5 to 10 times each day ... usually is abnormal, and most of these patients will benefit from treatment with bile acid sequestrants ... The enterohepatic circulation of bile acids is reduced in these patients with ileal abnormalities and, as the normal bile acid retention exceeds 95%, only a small ...
Famous quotes containing the word bile:
“Mister Ward, dont yur blud bile at the thawt that three million and a half of your culled brethren air a clanking their chains in the South?Sez I, not a bile! Let em clank!”
—Artemus Ward (18341867)