**Bhāskara** (also known as **Bhāskara II** and **Bhāskarāchārya** ("Bhāskara the teacher"), (1114–1185), was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He was born near *Vijjadavida* (Bijāpur in modern Karnataka). Bhāskara is said to have been the head of an astronomical observatory at Ujjain, the leading mathematical center of ancient India. He lived in the Sahyadri region (Patnadevi, Jalgaon, Maharashtra).

Bhāskara and his works represent a significant contribution to mathematical and astronomical knowledge in the 12th century. He has been called the greatest mathematician of medieval India. His main work *Siddhānta Shiromani,* (Sanskrit for "Crown of treatises,") is divided into four parts called *Lilāvati*, *Bijaganita*, *Grahaganita* and *Golādhyāya*. These four sections deal with arithmetic, algebra, mathematics of the planets, and spheres respectively. He also wrote another treatise named Karan Kautoohal.

Bhāskara's work on calculus predates Newton and Leibniz by half a millennium. He is particularly known in the discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations. While Newton and Leibniz have been credited with differential and integral calculus, there is strong evidence to suggest that Bhāskara was a pioneer in some of the principles of differential calculus. He was perhaps the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus.

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