Benjamin Tucker - Anarchism

Part of the Politics series on
Schools of thought
  • Black
  • Buddhist
  • Capitalist
  • Christian
  • Collectivist
  • Communist
  • Egoist
  • Existentialist
  • Feminist
  • Green
  • Individualist
  • Infoanarchism
  • Insurrectionary
  • Leftist
  • Mutualist
  • National
  • Naturist
  • Pacifist
  • Philosophical
  • Platformist
  • Post-anarchist
  • Post-colonial
  • Post-left
  • Primitivist
  • Queer
  • Social
  • Syndicalist
  • Synthesist
  • Vegan
  • Voluntaryist
  • Without adjectives
  • Theory
  • practice
  • Anarchy
  • Anarchist Black Cross
  • Anti-authoritarianism
  • Anti-militarism
  • Affinity group
  • Black bloc
  • Class struggle
  • Communes
  • Consensus democracy
  • Conscientious objector
  • Decentralization
  • Deep ecology
  • Direct action
  • Direct democracy
  • Dual power
  • Especifismo
  • Expropriative anarchism
  • Free association
  • Free love
  • Free school
  • Freethought
  • Horizontalidad
  • Illegalism
  • Individualism
  • Individual reclamation
  • Isocracy
  • Law
  • Participatory politics
  • Permanent Autonomous Zone
  • Prefigurative politics
  • Propaganda of the deed
  • Refusal of work
  • Revolution
  • Rewilding
  • Social center
  • Social ecology
  • Social insertion
  • Somatherapy
  • Spontaneous order
  • Squatting
  • Temporary Autonomous Zone
  • Union of egoists
  • William Godwin
  • Josiah Warren
  • Pierre-Joseph Proudhon
  • Henry David Thoreau
  • Max Stirner
  • Mikhail Bakunin
  • Louise Michel
  • Peter Kropotkin
  • Benjamin Tucker
  • Errico Malatesta
  • Johann Most
  • Leo Tolstoy
  • Emma Goldman
  • Émile Armand
  • Nestor Makhno
  • Rudolf Rocker
  • Buenaventura Durruti
  • Alexander Berkman
  • Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia
  • Volin
  • Murray Bookchin
  • Colin Ward
  • Noam Chomsky
  • Alfredo M. Bonanno
  • John Zerzan
  • Anarcho-capitalism
  • Animal rights
  • Capitalism
  • Education
  • Criticisms
  • Islam
  • LGBT rights
  • Lifestylism
  • Marxism
  • Nationalism
  • Orthodox Judaism
  • Religion
  • Sex/love
  • Violence
  • Paris Commune
  • Hague Congress
  • International Conference of Rome
  • Trial of the thirty
  • Haymarket affair
  • May Day
  • Anarchist Exclusion Act
  • Congress of Amsterdam
  • Tragic Week
  • High Treason Incident
  • Manifesto of the Sixteen
  • 1919 United States anarchist bombings
  • Biennio rosso
  • German Revolution of 1918–1919
  • Bavarian Soviet Republic
  • Kronstadt rebellion
  • Third Russian Revolution
  • Free Territory
  • Amakasu Incident
  • Escuela Moderna
  • Individualist anarchism in Europe
  • Individualist anarchism in France
  • Spanish Revolution
  • Barcelona May Days
  • Red inverted triangle
  • Labadie Collection
  • May 1968
  • Provo
  • LIP
  • Kate Sharpley Library
  • Australian Anarchist Centenary
  • Carnival Against Capitalism
  • 1999 WTO Conference protest
  • Anarchist films
  • Anarchist Bookfair
  • Anarcho-punk
  • Arts
  • Culture jamming
  • DIY culture
  • Freeganism
  • Independent Media Center
  • Infoshop
  • The Internationale
  • Jewish anarchism
  • Land and liberty
  • Lifestylism
  • Popular education
  • Property is theft!
  • Radical cheerleading
  • Radical environmentalism
  • Squatting
  • Symbolism
  • Terminology
  • A las barricadas
  • Communization
  • Co-operatives
  • Counter-economics
  • Economic democracy
  • Economic secession
  • Free store
  • Gift economy
  • Infoanarchism
  • Market abolitionism
  • Mutual aid
  • Mutualism
  • Participatory economics
  • Planned economy
  • Really Really Free Market
  • Wage slavery
  • Workers' self-management
By region
  • Africa
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • China
  • Cuba
  • Ecuador
  • England
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • India
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Mexico
  • Poland
  • Russia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Turkey
  • Ukraine
  • United States
  • Vietnam
  • Anarcho-punk bands
  • Communities
  • Fictional characters
  • Jewish anarchists
  • Musicians
  • Organizations
  • Periodicals
  • Poets
  • Pornographers
  • Russian anarchists
  • Films
Related topics
  • Anti-capitalism
  • Anti-consumerism
  • Anti-corporatism
  • Anti-fascism
  • Anti-globalization
  • Antimilitarism
  • Anti-statism
  • Anti-war
  • Autarchism
  • Autonomism
  • Labour movement
  • Left communism
  • Libertarianism
  • Libertarian perspectives on revolution
  • Libertarian socialism
  • Situationist International
Anarchism Portal
Politics portal

Tucker said that he became an anarchist at the age of 18. Tucker's contribution to American individualist anarchism was as much through his publishing as his own writing. Tucker was also the first to translate into English Max Stirner's The Ego and Its Own — which Tucker claimed was his proudest accomplishment. Tucker also translated Mikhail Bakunin's book God and the State. In the anarchist periodical Liberty, he published the original work of Stephen Pearl Andrews, Joshua K. Ingalls, Lysander Spooner, Auberon Herbert, Victor Yarros, and Lillian Harman, daughter of the free love anarchist Moses Harman, as well as his own writing.

He also published George Bernard Shaw's first original article to appear in the United States, and the first American translated excerpts of Friedrich Nietzsche. In Liberty, Tucker both filtered and integrated the theories of such European thinkers as Herbert Spencer and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the economic and legal theories of the American individualists Lysander Spooner, William B. Greene and Josiah Warren, and the writings of the free thought and free love movements in opposition to religiously based legislation and prohibitions on non-invasive behavior. Through these influences Tucker produced a rigorous system of philosophical or individualist anarchism that he called Anarchistic-Socialism, arguing that " most perfect Socialism is possible only on the condition of the most perfect individualism."

According to Frank Brooks, an historian of American individualist anarchism, it is easy to misunderstand Tucker's claim to "socialism". Before Marxists established a hegemony over definitions of socialism, "the term socialism was a broad concept." Tucker, as well as most of the writers and readers of Liberty, understood "socialism" to refer to one or more of various theories aimed at solving "the labor problem" through radical changes in the capitalist economy. Descriptions of 'the problem', explanations of it causes, and proposed solutions (for example, abolition of private property, cooperatives, state-ownership, and so on) varied among "socialist" philosophies.

Tucker said socialism was the claim that "labor should be put in possession of its own," holding that what "state socialism" and "anarchistic socialism" had in common was the labor theory of value. However, "Instead of asserting, as did socialist anarchists, that common ownership was the key to eroding differences of economic power," and appealing to social solidarity, Tucker's individualist anarchism advocated distribution of property in an undistorted natural market, as a mediator of egoistic impulses and a source of social stability. Although Tucker described his views as "Anarchistic Socialism," Freeden and some other scholars do not consider Tucker a socialist anarchist, because he supported private control over the means of production, as opposed to socialized or community control.

Tucker said,

"the fact that one class of men are dependent for their living upon the sale of their labour, while another class of men are relieved of the necessity of labour by being legally privileged to sell something that is not labour. . . . And to such a state of things I am as much opposed as any one. But the minute you remove privilege. . . every man will be a labourer exchanging with fellow-labourers . . . What Anarchistic-Socialism aims to abolish is usury . . . it wants to deprive capital of its reward."

Tucker first favored a natural rights philosophy, in which an individual had a right to own the fruits of his labor; then he abandoned it in favor of "egoism" (influenced by Max Stirner), in which he believed that only the "right of might" exists, until overridden by contract.

He objected to all forms of communism, believing that even a stateless communist society must encroach upon the liberty of individuals. He

"denounced Marx as the representative of 'the principle of authority which we live to combat.' He thought Proudhon the superior theorist and the real champion of freedom. 'Marx would nationalize the productive and distributive forces; Proudhon would individualize and associate them.'"

Read more about this topic:  Benjamin Tucker

Other articles related to "anarchism":

Anarchism - Criticisms
... Main article Criticisms of anarchism Criticisms of anarchism include moral criticisms and pragmatic criticisms ...
Contemporary Anarchism
... Anarchism is often defined as a political philosophy which holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary, or harmful ... while anti-statism is central, it is inadequate to define anarchism solely on this basis ... Therefore, they argue instead that anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations, including, but not limited to, the ...
Lewis Call - Thought
... For more details on this topic, see Post-anarchism ... From here a radical form of anarchism is made possible the anarchism of becoming ... This anarchism does not have an eventual goal, nor flow into "being", it is not a final state of development, nor a static form of society, but rather becomes permanent, as a means without end ...
Listen, Anarchist!
... vanguardist "urban guerillas" of insurrectionary anarchism ... the anti-work tendency in contemporary anarchism, accusing some of its advocates of being parasites of those who do work ... proposes that many of the tendencies within anarchism that Bufe criticises stem from its individualist wing, inspired by the philosophy of Max Stirner, which she maintains is the source of "lifestyle ...
Lewis Call
... He is best known for his 2002 book Postmodern Anarchism, which develops an account of postmodern anarchism through philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche and cyberpunk writers such as William Gibson and ... Call has written extensively on the intersection of post-anarchism and science fiction, covering philosophers and authors such as Gilles Deleuze, Jean Baudrillard, Octavia Butler, Samuel R ...

Famous quotes containing the word anarchism:

    Anarchism is the only philosophy which brings to man the consciousness of himself; which maintains that God, the State, and society are non-existent, that their promises are null and void, since they can be fulfilled only through man’s subordination. Anarchism is therefore the teacher of the unity of life; not merely in nature, but in man.
    Emma Goldman (1869–1940)