# Bending

In engineering mechanics, bending (also known as flexure) characterizes the behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.

The structural element is assumed to be such that at least one of its dimensions is a small fraction, typically 1/10 or less, of the other two. When the length is considerably longer than the width and the thickness, the element is called a beam. For example, a closet rod sagging under the weight of clothes on clothes hangers is an example of a beam experiencing bending. On the other hand, a shell is a structure of any geometric form where the length and the width are of the same order of magnitude but the thickness of the structure (known as the 'wall') is considerably smaller. A large diameter, but thin-walled, short tube supported at its ends and loaded laterally is an example of a shell experiencing bending.

In the absence of a qualifier, the term bending is ambiguous because bending can occur locally in all objects. To make the usage of the term more precise, engineers refer to the bending of rods, the bending of beams, the bending of plates, the bending of shells and so on.

Read more about Bending:  Quasistatic Bending of Beams, Dynamic Bending of Beams, Quasistatic Bending of Plates

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Dynamic Bending of Plates - Dynamics of Thin Kirchhoff Plates
... The equations that govern the dynamic bending of Kirchhoff plates are where, for a plate with density , and The figures below show some vibrational modes of a circular plate ...
Tube Bending
... Tube bending is the umbrella term for metal forming processes used to permanently form pipes or tubing ... One has to differentiate between form-bound and freeform-bending procedures, as well as between heat supported and cold forming procedures ... Form bound bending procedures like “press bending” or “rotary draw bending” are used to form the work piece into the shape of a die ...
Tube Bending - Mandrels - Bending Springs
... into a pipe to support the pipe walls during manual bending ... They are only suitable for bending 15-and-22 mm (0.6-and-0.9 in) soft copper pipe (typically used in household plumbing) or PVC pipe ... They are less cumbersome than rotary benders, but are not suitable for bending short lengths of piping when it is difficult to get the required leverage on the pipe ends ...
Lipid Bilayer Mechanics - Bending Modulus
... See also Beam (structure) Bending modulus is defined as the energy required to deform a membrane from its intrinsic curvature to some other curvature ... The bending modulus, compression modulus and bilayer thickness are related by such that if two of these parameters are known the other can be calculated ... the more each face must deform to accommodate a given curvature (see bending moment) ...

### Famous quotes containing the word bending:

Sometimes we sailed as gently and steadily as the clouds overhead, watching the receding shores and the motions of our sail; the play of its pulse so like our own lives, so thin and yet so full of life, so noiseless when it labored hardest, so noisy and impatient when least effective; now bending to some generous impulse of the breeze, and then fluttering and flapping with a kind of human suspense.
Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862)

Go bind thou up young dangling apricots
Which, like unruly children, make their sire
Stoop with oppression of their prodigal weight.
Give some supportance to the bending twigs.
Go thou, and like an executioner
Cut off the heads of too-fast-growing sprays
That look too lofty in our commonwealth.
All must be even in our government.
You thus employed, I will go root away
The noisome weeds which without profit suck
The soil’s fertility from wholesome flowers.
William Shakespeare (1564–1616)

It is the star to every wand’ring bark,
Whose worth’s unknown, although his height be taken.
Love’s not Time’s fool, though rosy lips and cheeks
Within his bending sickle’s compass come;
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out even to the edge of doom.
William Shakespeare (1564–1616)