Australian languages divide into a dozen or so families. Note when cross-referencing that most language names have multiple spellings: rr=r, b=p, d=t, g=k, dj=j=tj=c, j=y, y=i, w=u, u=oo, e=a, and so on. A range is given for the number of languages in each family, as sources count languages differently.
- Presumptive isolates:
- Giimbiyu (extinct)
- Marrgu (extinct)
- Wagiman (moribund)
- Previously established families:
- Bunaban (2)
- Daly (four to five families, with 11–19 languages)
- Iwaidjan (3–7)
- Jarrakan (3–5)
- Nyulnyulan (8)
- Wororan (7–12)
- Newly proposed families:
- Mirndi (5–7)
- Darwin Region (4)
- Arnhem macrofamily, including Gunwinyguan (22)
- Greater Pama–Nyungan:
- Tangkic (5)
- the Garawa (3)
- Pama–Nyungan proper (approximately 270 languages)
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Famous quotes containing the word families:
“Families have always been in flux and often in crisis; they have never lived up to nostalgic notions about the way things used to be. But that doesnt mean the malaise and anxiety people feel about modern families are delusions, that everything would be fine if we would only realize that the past was not all its cracked up to be. . . . Even if things were not always right in families of the past, it seems clear that some things have newly gone wrong.”
—Stephanie Coontz (20th century)
“Nostalgia is one of the great enemies of clear thinking about the family. The disruption of families in the nineteenth century through death, separation, and other convulsions of an industrializing economy was much more catastrophic than we imagine.”
—Joseph Featherstone (20th century)
“Children from humble families must be taught how to command just as other children must be taught how to obey.”
—Friedrich Nietzsche (18441900)