Xanthines

Xanthines

Xanthine ( /ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. A number of stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine and theobromine.

Xanthine is a product on the pathway of purine degradation.

  • It is created from guanine by guanine deaminase.
  • It is created from hypoxanthine by xanthine oxidoreductase.
  • It is also created from xanthosine by purine nucleoside phosphorylase(PNP).

Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme.

Studies reported in 2008, based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, suggested that xanthine and related chemicals, including the RNA component uracil, were formed extraterrestrially. In August 2011, a report, based on NASA studies with meteorites found on Earth, was published suggesting xanthine and related organic molecules, including the DNA and RNA components adenine and guanine, were made in outer space.

Read more about Xanthines:  Pathology, Clinical Significance of Xanthine Derivatives

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Xanthines - Clinical Significance of Xanthine Derivatives
... Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as ... In contrast to other, more potent stimulants, xanthines mainly act to oppose the actions of the sleepiness-inducing adenosine, making them less effective as stimulants than sympathomimetic ... effects, the therapeutic range of xanthines is narrow, making them merely a second-line asthma treatment ...
Clinical Significance of Xanthine Derivatives
... Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators ... In contrast to other, more potent stimulants, xanthines mainly act to oppose the actions of the sleepiness-inducing adenosine, making them less effective ... Due to widespread effects, the therapeutic range of xanthines is narrow, making them merely a second-line asthma treatment ...