In a substitution reaction, a functional group in a particular chemical compound is replaced by another group. In organic chemistry, the electrophilic and nucleophilic substitution reactions are of prime importance. Organic substitution reactions are classified in several main organic reaction types depending on whether the reagent that brings about the substitution is considered an electrophile or a nucleophile, whether a reactive intermediate involved in the reaction is a carbocation, a carbanion or a free radical or whether the substrate is aliphatic or aromatic. Detailed understanding of a reaction type helps to predict the product outcome in a reaction. It also is helpful for optimizing a reaction with regard to variables such as temperature and choice of solvent.
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Some articles on substitution reaction:
... For example benzene is a simple aromatic ring and substituted benzenes are a heterogeneous group of chemicals with a wide spectrum of uses and properties compound general formula general structure Benzene C6H6 Toluene C6H5-CH3 o-Xylene C6H4(-CH3)2 Mesitylene C6H3(-CH3)3 Phenol C6H5-OH Just a few substituted benzene compounds. ...
... Electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction will take place mainly in 3-position due to the electron-withdrawing carboxylic group i.e ... The second substitution reaction (on the right) is slower because the first nitro group is deactivating ... alkyl), a second substitution reaction would occur more readily than the first and the disubstituted product might accumulate to a significant extent ...
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