Water Supply And Sanitation In The European Union
Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS) in the European Union (EU) is still under the responsibility of each member state, but in the 21st century union-wide policies have come into effect. Water resources are limited and supply and sanitation systems are under pressure from urbanisation and climate change. The water policy of the EU is primarily codified in three directives:
- The Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC) of 21 May 1991 concerning discharges of municipal and some industrial waste waters;
- The Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC) of 3 November 1998 concerning potable water quality;
- The Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) of 23 October 2000 concerning water resources management.
EU member states have enacted national legislation in accordance with these directives. The institutional organisation of public water supply and sanitation does not fall under the purview of the EU, but remains a prerogative of each member state.
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