The Gemstone-planetary Blason
The work of Bonet was thoroughly studied by the 15th century Burgundian heraldists and Jean Courtois (†1436) called Sicily Herald. In his work Le Blason des Couleurs (1414), Courtois developed a heraldic system consisting of the tinctures, planets and carbuncles (furthermore, the virtues, metals, months, the zodiac, and weekdays among others). He was familiar with the Etymologies of Isidore of Seville, and also he gave the names of the tinctures in Greek. However, his main contribution was the development of gemstone-planetary blazon. The system that Bonet developed was as a mix of the colour-gemstone-planet: or topaz the sun, argent pearl the moon, gules ruby the Mars, sable diamond the Saturn, azure sapphire the Jupiter, vert emerald the Venus, purpure amethyst the Mercury, tenné jacinth the dragon's head, sanguine/murrey sardonyx the dragon's tail.
Tenné and sanguine were the stains used in the abatements of arms which were dishonorable charges placed upon the coats of arms of malefactors. Dragon's head and dragon's tail were in use from the late ancient times. While the dragon's head (called also Anabibazon in astronomy and astrology) symbolizes a light colour (tenné), dragon‘s tail (called also Catabibazon) symbolizes a dark colour (sanguine) which in miniature corresponds to transmutation, provided by alchemists. The purpose of this process is to produce the philosopher's stone. During the process, as a result of the successive reactions, the materia prima will get transformed to a darker and more reddish one from the light coloured material. In the astrology dragon‘s head is connected to good luck, while dragon‘s tail is linked to unlucky events. All these indicate that the then contemporary heraldry was strongly under the influences of magical views and alchemistic ideas, which in turn were connected to the lore of the sympathies between the colours, planets, gemstones, metals, virtues etc. (The odd terminology of colours used by Heraldus Britannus, as mentioned by Spener, can partly reflect the view of alchemy: aurum–cytrine, argentum–aspre, rubeus–coccine, caeruleus– veneto, niger–mauro, viridis–prasino, and purpureus–oiscy.)
The work of Jean Courtois was diffused in manuscripts and later became one of the first books printed in French. Shortly it was published in England as well, but without much impact. However, during the Tudor and Stuart dynasties (1485–1702), it appeared in the then heraldry manuals. In his book Traité du blason (1465), Clément Prinsault deals with the relation of colours to the virtues, the seven planets, the 12 celestial signs, gemstones, weekdays, the three elements etc. This book is one of the earliest writings on heraldry that is available today.
The English historian and heraldist Sir Henry Spelman (1564–1641) applied in his 1654 book titled Aspilogia the symbols of the planets to designate tinctures (presented in the table). Sir John Ferne (†1609) enumerates as many as 14 different methods of blazon: 1. by colours, 2. by planets, 3. by precious stones, 4. by virtues, 5. by celestial signs, 6. by the months of the year, 7. by the days of the week, 8. by the ages of man, 9. by flowers, 10. by the elements, 11. by the seasons of the year, 12. by the complexions of man, 13. by numbers, 14. by metals. Though today its practice is considered absurd, it was an organic part of the then heraldic view.
Apart from the main tinctures, there also existed English and other language tricking abbreviations for some other tinctures (such as Proper – ppr, pp, Ermine – er etc.). To designate carnation (carnea tinctura), the then contemporary heraldry applied the zodiac sign of Leo in reverse, and the German heraldry used trefoil to designate colours above the seven main tinctures („qui ultimus color alibi signo trifolii ♣ pinguitur“). Spener also maintained (1717. p. 113), the tenné and sanguine were designated by the zodiac sign of Leo . Besides the planetary sign of Venus, Rudolphi also refers to trefoil ( ) as a designation of colour vert. He also assigned the specific lengthy variants of astrological signs dragon's head and dragon's tail to the tinctures orange and carnation, respectively( ). Furthermore, the tincture Purpure being abbreviated by the letter p. (de: Purpur), and the grey by the letter a. (Asche-Farb). The astrological signs of the ascending and descending nodes (dragon's head and dragon's tail: were also derived from the zodiac sign of Leo that was highly esteemed in the Renaissance age astrology.
So, besides these seven principal tinctures, there soon emerged some additional colours, which were also symbolized by the planetary symbols, gemstones, weekdays etc. Thus, a system of nine tinctures was developed. In general, it was said that the great magnates – the dukes, the earls, and the barons – were to have their arms blazoned by gemstones, and that the princes, the kings and the emperors were to have their arms blazoned by the planets. However, the Austrian troubadour and herald Peter Suchenwirt (c. 1320-1395) used gemstones to designate the tinctures even earlier (c. 1355) to describe the coat of arms of the Hungarian king Louis the Great (1342–1382). In his poem titled Turnier von Nantheiz (c. 1258) Konrad von Würzburg (c. 1230 -1287) also mentioned some coat of arms made of gemstones. In his blazon on the arms of the king of England (lines 310-320) we can learn that his escutheion was covered with Arabian gold and his leopards were made of rubies; finally, to the end of his work (1040) we can also read about further precious stones applied on coat of arms.