Transfer RNA

Transfer RNA (tRNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 73 to 93 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the nucleotide sequence of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and the amino acid sequence of proteins. It does this by carrying an amino acid to the protein synthetic machinery of a cell (ribosome) as directed by a three-nucleotide sequence (codon) in a messenger RNA (mRNA). As such, tRNAs are a necessary component of protein translation, the biological synthesis of new proteins according to the genetic code.

The specific nucleotide sequence of a mRNA specifies which amino acids are incorporated into the protein product of the gene from which the mRNA is transcribed, and the role of tRNA is to specify which sequence from the genetic code corresponds to which amino acid. One end of the tRNA matches the genetic code in a three-nucleotide sequence called the anticodon. The anticodon forms three base pairs with a codon in mRNA during protein biosynthesis. The mRNA encodes a protein as a series of contiguous codons, each of which is recognized by a particular tRNA. On the other end of the tRNA is a covalent attachment to the amino acid that corresponds to the anticodon sequence. Each type of tRNA molecule can be attached to only one type of amino acid, so each organism has many types of tRNA (in fact, because the genetic code contains multiple codons that specify the same amino acid, there are many tRNA molecules bearing different anticodons which also carry the same amino acid).

The covalent attachment to the tRNA 3’ end is catalyzed by enzymes called aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. During protein synthesis, tRNAs with attached amino acids are delivered to the ribosome by proteins called elongation factors (EF-Tu in bacteria, eEF-1 in eukaryotes), which aid in decoding the mRNA codon sequence. If the tRNA's anticodon matches the mRNA, another tRNA already bound to the ribosome transfers the growing polypeptide chain from its 3’ end to the amino acid attached to the 3’ end of the newly-delivered tRNA, a reaction catalyzed by the ribosome.

Read more about Transfer RNA:  Structure, Anticodon, Aminoacylation, Binding To Ribosome, TRNA Genes, TRNA Biogenesis, History

Other articles related to "transfer, transfer rna, rna":

Alanine-t RNA Ligase
... Other names in common use include alanyl-tRNA synthetase, alanyl-transfer ribonucleate synthetase, alanyl-transfer RNA synthetase, alanyl-transfer ribonucleic acid synthetase ...
Gene Expression - Mechanism - Translation
... For some RNA (non-coding RNA) the mature RNA is the final gene product ... In the case of messenger RNA (mRNA) the RNA is an information carrier coding for the synthesis of one or more proteins ... codon and corresponds to a binding site complementary to an anticodon triplet in transfer RNA ...
Transfer RNA - History
... The existence of tRNA was first hypothesized by Francis Crick, based on the assumption that there must exist an adapter molecule capable of mediating the translation of the RNA alphabet into the protein alphabet ... Significant research on structure was conducted in the early 1960s by Alex Rich and Don Caspar, two researchers in Boston, the Jacques Fresco group in Princeton University and a United Kingdom group at King's College London ...
Translation (biology)
... process through which cellular ribosomes manufacture proteins, in which messenger RNA (mRNA) is sequentially decoded by transfer RNA (tRNA) ... In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) produced by transcription is decoded by the ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that will later fold into an active protein ... Many types of transcribed RNA, such as transfer RNA, ribosomal RNA, and small nuclear RNA, do not undergo translation into proteins ...

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