# Tosses

### Some articles on tosses:

Martingale (betting System) - Mathematical Analysis
... Let the coin tosses be represented by a sequence X0, X1, … of independent random variables, each of which is equal to H with probability p, and T with probability q = 1 ... variable because it depends on the random outcomes of the coin tosses ... In the first N – 1 coin tosses, the player following the martingale strategy loses 1, 2, …, 2N–1 units, accumulating a total loss of 2N − 1 ...
Arthur–Merlin Protocol - AM
... There is only one query/response pair Arthur tosses some random coins and sends only the outcome of all his random coin tosses to Merlin, Merlin responds with a purported proof, and ... In this protocol, Arthur is only allowed to send outcomes of coin tosses to Merlin, and in the final stage Arthur must decide whether to accept or reject using only his previously generated ...
Full Toss
... Full tosses are rarely bowled deliberately, as they defeat the purpose of most types of delivery, which is to deceive the batsman by bouncing unpredictably on ... of Pakistan, though recently Lasith Malinga of Sri Lanka has been bowling low full tosses with his unorthodox round arm action ... Full tosses below the waist are also commonly accidental ...
Gambler's Fallacy - An Example: Coin-tossing
... With a fair coin, the outcomes in different tosses are statistically independent and the probability of getting heads on a single toss is exactly 1⁄2 (one in two) ... It follows that the probability of getting two heads in two tosses is 1⁄4 (one in four) and the probability of getting three heads in three tosses is 1⁄8 (one in eight) ... After the first four tosses the results are no longer unknown, so their probabilities are 1 ...
Expected Value - Formulas For Special Cases - Discrete Distribution Taking Only Non-negative Integer Values
... How many tosses can we expect until the first heads (not including the heads itself)? Let X be this number ... This is because the number of tosses is at least i exactly when the first i tosses yielded tails ...

### Famous quotes containing the word tosses:

It tosses up our losses, the torn seine,
The shattered lobster pot, the broken oar
And the gear of foreign dead men. The sea has many voices,
Many gods and many voices.
—T.S. (Thomas Stearns)