Tongue Worms

Pentastomida are an enigmatic group of parasitic invertebrates commonly known as tongue worms due to the resemblance of the species of the genus Linguatula to a vertebrate tongue.

There are about 130 extant species of pentastomids; all are obligate parasites with correspondingly degenerate anatomy. Adult tongue worms vary from about 1 to 14 centimetres (0.4 to 5.5 in) in length, and parasitise the respiratory tracts of vertebrates. They have five anterior appendages. One is the mouth; the others are two pairs of hooks which they use to attach to the host. This arrangement led to their scientific name, meaning "five openings", but although the appendages are similar in some species, only one is a mouth.

Alternative names for the Pentastomida include Pentastoma (strictly a genus name), Linguatulida, and Acanthotheca.

Read more about Tongue WormsBiology, Human Infestation, Affinities, Fossil Record, Classification

Other articles related to "tongue worms, worms, worm":

Pentastomida - Affinities
... The affinities of tongue worms have long proved controversial ... they were initially compared to various groups of parasitic worms ... Although gall mites are much smaller than tongue worms they also have a long, segmented body and only two pairs of legs ...
Pentastomida - Affinities - Stem-arthropods
... as crustaceans based on their larvae but that tongue worms and their larvae do not express typical characters for Crustacea or even Euarthropoda ... Cambrian origins of these animals and interprets tongue worms as stem-group arthropods ... as sister group to a clade including nematodes, priapulids and similar ecdyzoan 'worm' groups ...
Tongue Worms - Classification
... Subclass Pentastomida Fossil stem-group taxa – all from the Cambrian 'Orsten' of Sweden host unknown †Aengapentastomum †Aengapentastomum andresi †Boeckelericambria †Boeckelericambria pelturae †Haffnericambria †Haffnericambria trolmeniensis †Heymonsicambria †Heymonsicambria gossmannae †Heymonsicambria kinnekullensis †Heymonsicambria repetski †Heymonsicambria scandia †Heymonsicambria taylori Taxon Eupentastomida Order Cephalobaenida Family Cephalobaenidae Cephalobaena Cephalobaena freitarsi Cephalobaena giglioli – South America primary host amphisbaenians Cephalobaena tetrapoda – South America primary host snakes Mahafaliella Mahafaliella tetrapoda – Madagascar primary host Madagascar boa Mahafaliella venteli Raillietiella Raillietiella aegypti – Egypt primary host lizards Raillietiella affinis Raillietiella agocai – Philippines primary host cobra Raillietiella ampanihyensis – Madagascar primary host snakes Raillietiella amphiboluri – Australia primary host bearded lizard Railietiella bicaudata Raillietiella bufonis – Puerto Rico primary host toads Raillietiella boulengeri – Africa primary host snakes Raillietiella boulengeri var ... spiralis Raillietiella cartagenensis – Colombia primary host lizards Raillietiella chamaeleonis Raillietiella chautedeni Raillietiella congolensis Raillietiella crotali – Mexico – primary host rattlesnakes Raillietiella frenatus – Malaysia primary host geckos Raillietiella furcocerca Raillietiella gehyrae – Indonesia Raillietiella gowrii Raillietiella hebithamata Raillietiella hemidactyli – SE Asia Raillietiella indica – India primary host toads Raillietiella kochi Raillietiella mabuiae – south-west Africa Raillietiella maculatus – India Raillietiella mediterranea Raillietiella morenoi – Canary Islands primary host lizards Raillietiella orientalis – Asia primary host snakes Railletiella spiralis Raillietiella trachea – Pakistan primary host white backed vulture autoinfection? Rileyella Rileyella petauri Family Reighardiidae Hispania Hispana vulturis – Spain primary host black vulture Reighardia Reighardia lomviae – northern Europe primary host guillemot Reighardia sternae – widespread in the northern Hemisphere particularly primary host seabirds no intermediate host (autoinfection) Order Porocephalida Superfamily Lingulatoidea Family Linguatulidae Linguatula Linguatula dingophila – Australia primary host dingos Lingulatula nuttali – East Africa primary host lion intermediate host antilopes Lingulatula recurvata – South America primary host jaguar intermediate host mammals, fish Linguatula serrata – cosmopolitan primary host dogs, wolves, etc ...

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