Timeline of Religion - Middle Ages (5th To 15th Century) - 5th To 9th Century

5th To 9th Century

St. Jerome completes the Vulgate, the first Latin translation of the Bible.
The Western Roman Empire begins to decline, signaling the onset of the Dark Ages.
The Assyrian Church of the East formally separates from the See of Antioch and the western Syrian Church
The third Ecumenical Council, the Council of Ephesus, is held as a result of the controversial teachings of Nestorius, of Constantinople. It repudiates Nestorianism, proclaims the Virgin Mary as the Theotokos ("Birth-giver to God", "God-bearer", "Mother of God"), repudiates Pelagianism, and again reaffirmes the Nicene Creed.
The Second Council of Ephesus declares support of Eutyches and attacked his opponents. Originally convened as an Ecumenical council, its ecumenicality is rejected and is denounced as a latrocinium by the Chalcedonian.
The fourth Ecumenical Council, the Council of Chalcedon rejects the Eutychian doctrine of monophysitism, adopts the Chalcedonian Creed, reinstated those deposed in 449 and deposed Dioscorus of Alexandria, and elevates of the bishoprics of Constantinople and Jerusalem to the status of patriarchates.
The Oriental Orthodox Church rejects the christological view put forth by the Council of Chalcedon and is excommunicated.
480 – 547
The Rule of Saint Benedict is written by Benedict of Nursia, the founder of Western Christian monasticism.
The fifth Ecumenical Council, Second Council of Constantinople, repudiates the Three Chapters as Nestorian and condemns Origen of Alexandria.
570 – 632
Life-time of Muhammad ibn 'Abdullāh RA, the founder of Islam and considered by Muslims to be a messenger of God.
The Rashidun Caliphate brings Arab conquest of Persia, Egypt, Iraq, bringing Islam into those regions.
The verses of the Qur'an are compliled in the form of a book in the era of Uthman RA, the third Caliph of Islam.
The Umayyad Caliphate brings Arab conquest of North Africa, Spain, Central Asia. Marking the greatest extent of the Arab conquests bringing Islam into those regions.
680 – 681
The sixth Ecumenical Council, the Third Council of Constantinople, rejects Monothelitism and Monoenergism.
Circa 680 the split between Sunni and Shiites starts to grow.
The Quinisext Council (aka "Council in Trullo"), an amendment to the 5th and 6th Ecumenical Councils, establishes the Pentarchy.
Kojiki, the oldest Shinto text is written
The latrocinium Council of Hieria supports iconoclasm.
The seventh Ecumenical Council, Second Council of Nicaea, restores the veneration of icons and denounces iconoclasm.
The oldest extant manuscripts of the vocalized Masoretic text upon which modern editions are based date to the (appx.) 9th century CE.

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