In psychology, temperament refers to those aspects of an individual's personality, such as introversion or extroversion, that are often regarded as innate rather than learned. A great many classificatory schemes for temperament have been developed; none, though, has achieved general consensus in academia.

Historically, the concept of temperament was part of the theory of the four humours, with their corresponding four temperaments. The concept played an important part in pre-modern psychology, and was explored by philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Hermann Lotze. David W. Keirsey also drew upon the early models of temperament when developing the Keirsey Temperament Sorter. More recently, scientists seeking evidence of a biological basis of personality have further examined the relationship between temperament and character (defined in this context as the learnt aspects of personality). However, biological correlations have proven hard to confirm.

Read more about TemperamentOverview, Infants, Children and Adults, Nine Temperament Characteristics of Thomas and Chess, "Easy", "difficult", and "slow-to-warm-up", Mary K. Rothbart’s Three Dimensions of Temperament, History, Popular Usages

Other articles related to "temperament":

List Of Meantone Intervals
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Temperament - Popular Usages
... It is a popular conception that those who are highly artistic - painters, sculptors, musicians, writers, etc ... - often show dramatic swings in emotion, often elevated to extremes the so-called "artistic temperament" ...
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Syntonic Temperament
... The syntonic temperament is a system of musical tuning in which the frequency ratio of each musical interval is a product of powers of an octave and a tempered ... Alternatively put, the syntonic temperament generates all non-octave intervals from a stack of tempered perfect fifths and tempers the syntonic comma to unison ... This is the same definition as that of the meantone temperament ...
Llewellin Setter - Description - Temperament
... This breed's standard temperament is best described as a "Gentleman by Nature" ... Their temperament is considered to be gentle and as English Setters can be very sensitive to criticism, positive reinforcement training methods using treats and praise work best ...

Famous quotes containing the word temperament:

    Temperament is the natural, inborn style of behavior of each individual. It’s the how of behavior, not the why.... The question is not, “Why does he behave a certain way if he doesn’t get a cookie?” but rather, “When he doesn’t get a cookie, how does he express his displeasure...?” The environment—and your behavior as a parent—can influence temperament and interplay with it, but it is not the cause of temperamental characteristics.
    Stanley Turecki (20th century)

    That a good fit between parental handling and child temperament is vital to help children adapt to the imperatives of their society is a crucial concept that can be applied to other cultures.
    Stella Chess (20th century)