Technology-Enhanced Learning - History

History

In 1960, the University of Illinois initiated a classroom system based in linked computer terminals where students could access informational resources on a particular course while listening to the lectures that were recorded via some form of remotely device like television or audio device.

In the early 1960s, Stanford University psychology professors Patrick Suppes and Richard C. Atkinson experimented with using computers to teach math and reading to young children in elementary schools in East Palo Alto, California. Stanford's Education Program for Gifted Youth is descended from those early experiments. In 1963, Bernard Luskin installed the first computer in a community college for instruction, working with Stanford and others, developed computer assisted instruction. Luskin completed his landmark UCLA dissertation working with the Rand Corporation in analyzing obstacles to computer assisted instruction in 1970.

Educational institutions began to take advantage of the new medium by offering distance learning courses using computer networking for information.

Early e-learning systems, based on Computer-Based Learning/Training often attempted to replicate autocratic teaching styles whereby the role of the e-learning system was assumed to be for transferring knowledge, as opposed to systems developed later based on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL), which encouraged the shared development of knowledge.

Computer-based learning made up many early e-learning courses such as those developed by Murray Turoff and Starr Roxanne Hiltz in the 1970s and 80s at the New Jersey Institute of Technology, and the ones developed at the University of Guelph in Canada. By mid 1980’s, accessing course content become possible at many college libraries.

Cassandra B. Whyte researched about the ever increasing role that computers would play in higher education. This evolution, to include computer-supported collaborative learning, in addition to data management, has been realized. The type of computers has changed over the years from cumbersome, slow devices taking up much space in the classroom, home, and office to laptops and handheld devices that are more portable in form and size and this minimalization of technology devices will continue.

The Open University in Britain and the University of British Columbia (where Web CT, now incorporated into Blackboard Inc. was first developed) began a revolution of using the Internet to deliver learning, making heavy use of web-based training and online distance learning and online discussion between students. Practitioners such as Harasim (1995) put heavy emphasis on the use of learning networks.

With the advent of World Wide Web in the 1990s, teachers embarked on the method using emerging technologies to employ multi-object oriented sites, which are text-based online virtual reality system, to create course websites along with simple sets instructions for its students. As the Internet becomes popularized, correspondence schools like University of Phoenix became highly interested with the virtual education, setting up a name for itself in 1980.

In 1993, Graziadei described an online computer-delivered lecture, tutorial and assessment project using electronic mail. By 1994, the first online high school had been founded. In 1997, Graziadei described criteria for evaluating products and developing technology-based courses include being portable, replicable, scalable, and affordable, and having a high probability of long-term cost-effectiveness.

By 1994, CALCampus presented its first online curriculum as Internet becoming more accessible through major telecommunications networks. CALCampus is where concepts of online-based school first originated, this allowed to progress real-time classroom instructions and Quantum Link classrooms. With the drastic shift of Internetfunctionality, multimedia began introducing new schemes of communication; through the invention of webcams, educators can simply record lessons live and upload them on the website page. Now, there are currently wide varieties of online education that are reachable for colleges, universities and K-12 students. In fact, the National Center for Education Statistics estimate the number of K-12 students enrolled in online distance learning programs increased by 65 percent from 2002 to 2005. This form of high learning allowed for greater flexibility by easing the communication between teacher and student, now teachers received quick lecture feedbacks from their students. The idea of Virtual Education soon became popular and many institutions began following the new norm in the education history.

The emergence of e-learning is arguably one of the most powerful tools available to the growing need for education. The need to improve access to education opportunities allowed students who desire to pursue their education but are constricted due to the distance of the institution to achieve education through "virtual connection" newly available to them. Online education is rapidly increasing and becoming as a viable alternative for traditional classrooms. According to a 2008 study conducted by the U.S Department of Education, back in 2006-2007 academic year, about 66% of postsecondary public and private schools began participating in student financial aid programs offered some distance learning courses, record shows only 77% of enrollment in for-credit courses being for those with an online component.. In 2008, the Council of Europe passed a statement endorsing e-learning's potential to drive equality and education improvements across the EU.

Recent studies show that the effectiveness of online instruction is considered equal to that of face-to-face classroom instructions but not as effective as the combination of face-to-face and online methods.

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