# Square Root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that y2 = a, or, in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or y × y) is a. For example, 4 is a square root of 16 because 42 = 16.

Every non-negative real number a has a unique non-negative square root, called the principal square root, which is denoted by, where √ is called the radical sign or radix. For example, the principal square root of 9 is 3, denoted, because 32 = 3 × 3 = 9 and 3 is non-negative. The term whose root is being considered is known as the radicand. The radicand is the number or expression underneath the radical sign, in this example 9.

Every positive number a has two square roots:, which is positive, and, which is negative. Together, these two roots are denoted (see ± shorthand). Although the principal square root of a positive number is only one of its two square roots, the designation "the square root" is often used to refer to the principal square root. For positive a, the principal square root can also be written in exponent notation, as a1/2.

Square roots of negative numbers can be discussed within the framework of complex numbers. More generally, square roots can be considered in any context in which a notion of "squaring" of some mathematical objects is defined (including algebras of matrices, endomorphism rings, etc.)

Square roots of positive whole numbers that are not perfect squares are always irrational numbers: numbers not expressible as a ratio of two integers (that is to say they cannot be written exactly as m/n, where m and n are integers). This is the theorem Euclid X, 9 almost certainly due to Theaetetus dating back to circa 380 BC. The particular case is assumed to date back earlier to the Pythagoreans and is traditionally attributed to Hippasus. It is exactly the length of the diagonal of a square with side length 1.

### Other articles related to "square root, square roots, square, squares":

Square Root Of 5 - Relation To The Golden Ratio and Fibonacci Numbers
... This golden ratio φ is the arithmetic mean of 1 and the square root of 5 ... The algebraic relationship between the square root of 5, the golden ratio and the conjugate of the golden ratio are expressed in the following formulae (Se ...
Estimation - Corrected Sample Standard Deviation
... Taking the square root to pass to the standard deviation introduces further downward bias, by Jensen's inequality, due to the square root being a concave function ... The bias in the variance is easily corrected, but the bias from the square root is more difficult to correct, and depends on the distribution in question ... Taking square roots reintroduces bias, and yields the corrected sample standard deviation, denoted by s While s2 is an unbiased estimator for the population variance, s is a biased estimator for the population ...
Square Root Of 5 - Geometry
... Geometrically, the square root of 5 corresponds to the diagonal of a rectangle whose sides are of length 1 and 2, as is evident from the Pythagorean theorem ... Such a rectangle can be obtained by halving a square, or by placing two equal squares side by side ... this forms the basis for the geometrical construction of a golden rectangle from a square, and for the construction of a regular pentagon given its side (since the ...
Square Root Of 5
... The square root of 5 is the positive real number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the prime number 5 ... It is more precisely called the principal square root of 5, to distinguish it from the negative number with the same property ...
Square Root - History
1800 BC and 1600 BC, showing and as 124,51,10 and 4225,35 base 60 numbers on a square crossed by two diagonals ... BC of an even earlier work and shows how the Egyptians extracted square roots ... In Ancient India, the knowledge of theoretical and applied aspects of square and square root was at least as old as the Sulba Sutras, dated around 800–500 BC (possibly ...

### Famous quotes containing the words root and/or square:

Propaganda has a bad name, but its root meaning is simply to disseminate through a medium, and all writing therefore is propaganda for something. It’s a seeding of the self in the consciousness of others.
Elizabeth Drew (1887–1965)

Rationalists, wearing square hats,
Think, in square rooms,
Looking at the floor,
Looking at the ceiling.
They confine themselves
To right-angled triangles.
Wallace Stevens (1879–1955)