Shear Strength

In engineering, shear strength is the strength of a material or component against the type of yield or structural failure where the material or component fails in shear. A shear load is a force that tends to produce a sliding failure on a material along a plane that is parallel to the direction of the force. When a paper is cut with scissors, the paper fails in shear.

In structural and mechanical engineering the shear strength of a component is important for designing the dimensions and materials to be used for the manufacture/construction of the component (e.g. beams, plates, or bolts) In a reinforced concrete beam, the main purpose of stirrups is to increase the shear strength.

For shear stress applies

where

is major principal stress
is minor principal stress

In general: ductile materials fail in shear (ex. aluminium), whereas brittle materials (ex. cast iron) fail in tension. See tensile strength.

To calculate:

Given total force at failure and the force-resisting area (e.g. the cross-section of a bolt loaded in shear), shear strength is: 0.268 kg in total mass.2600g.

As a very rough guide:

Material Ultimate Strength Relationship Yield Strength Relationship
Steels USS = approx. 0.75*UTS SYS = approx. 0.58*TYS
Ductile Iron USS = approx. 0.9*UTS SYS = approx. 0.75*TYS
Malleable Iron USS = approx. 1.0*UTS
Wrought Iron USS = approx. 0.83*UTS
Cast Iron USS = approx. 1.3*UTS
Aluminums USS = approx. 0.65*UTS SYS = approx. 0.55*TYS

When values measured from physical samples are desired, a number of testing standards are available, covering different material categories and testing conditions. In the US, ASTM standards for measuring shear strength include ASTM B831, D732, D4255, D5379, and D7078. Internationally, ISO testing standards for shear strength include ISO 3597, 12579, and 14130.

Other articles related to "shear strength, strength, shear, shear strengths":

Shear Strength (soil) - Steady State (dynamical Systems Based Soil Shear)
... The steady state strength is defined as the shear strength of the soil when it is at the steady state condition ... constant normal effective stress, constant shear stress, and constant velocity." (Poulos 1981) Harry Poulos built off a hypothesis that Arthur ... steady state condition and so that the shear stress needed to continue deformation at a constant velocity of deformation does not change ...
Shear Strength (soil)
... Shear strength is a term used in soil mechanics to describe the magnitude of the shear stress that a soil can sustain ... The shear resistance of soil is a result of friction and interlocking of particles, and possibly cementation or bonding at particle contacts ... material may expand or contract in volume as it is subject to shear strains ...
Machinability - Steels - Additives
... may work by lubricating the tool-chip interface, decreasing the shear strength of the material, or increasing the brittleness of the chip ... Since lead has poor shear strength, it allows the chip to slide more freely past the cutting edge ... it can greatly improve its machinability while not significantly affecting the steel's strength ...
Shear Strength (soil) - Undrained Strength
... This term describes a type of shear strength in soil mechanics as distinct from drained strength ... Conceptually, there is no such thing as the undrained strength of a soil ... path Rate of shearing Volume of material (like for fissured clays or rock mass) Undrained strength is typically defined by Tresca theory, based on Mohr's circle as is the shear strength (σ1 - σ3)/2 hence, = Su (or ...
Shear Strength (soil) - Critical State Theory
... In critical state soil mechanics, a distinct shear strength is identified where the soil undergoing shear does so at a constant volume, also called the 'critical state' ... Thus there are three commonly identified shear strengths for a soil undergoing shear Peak strength p Critical state or constant volume strength cv Residual strength r The peak strength may occur before or at ... In this case 'peak' strength will coincide with the critical state shear strength, once the soil has ceased contracting in volume ...

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