Shammar - Timeline


  • 1171–1172: Abda joins Saladin against the crusaders.
  • 1301: First Mention of a tribe called Shammar in the book Masalik Alabsar by Ibn Fadhl.
  • 1442: The city of Mujmaa is built by Abdullah ibn Saif Alwibari Alshammari.
  • 1446: The first known battle between Shammar and Unizah is fought by Bin Baqar of Alaslam and Altayyar of Unizah.
  • 1517 The Ottoman empire is established.
  • c. 1521: the name Shammar becomes prominent.
  • 1522: Shammar backs Bani Khalid against Aluyonien.
  • 1609: Shammar unites with Bani Khalid against the sheriff of Makkah.
  • 1690: Exodus into Iraq.
  • 1696: Shammar raids Baghdad.
  • 1744: The first Saudi Kingdom.
  • 1749–1762: Shammar raids reach northern baghdad despite the strong ruler Sulaiman Abu Layla Pasha.
  • 1750–1760: Wahabi movement emerges.
  • 1764: Migration of individuals of Alzagareet of Abdah to Southern Iraq under the leadership of Yousef bin Nasr.
  • 1765: alaslam and zaghareet between Hīt and Karabla.
  • 1776: Sheikh Mutlag bin Thanian invades Alhafeer area.
  • 1779: Jabal Shammar falls to Saudi domination.
  • 1781 (or 1791): Battle of Aladwa between Aljarba and Ibn Saud.
  • 1780: Shammar joins Bani Khalid and Muntafig and the Sheriff of Mecca to conquer Alsaud.
  • 1790: Wahabis raid southern Iraq early in the year.
  • 1790: Shammar is allied with the Sherif of Mecca against Alasaud.
  • 1791: Alsaud launches a surprise attack on Shammar and wins two battles 70 miles south-east of Hayel.
  • 1791: Late in the year some Shamaris join other bedouins in an attack against Alsaud; Muslit bin Mutlag is killed.
  • 1791: Mutlag Aljarba takes Shammar to safer places in southern Iraq.
  • 1792: Sheikh Abdul Wahab dies; Wahabi forces raid southern Iraq, defeating Bani Khalid.
  • 1792: Mohamad Bin Abdul mohsin Bin Ali (also believed to be Alsamn Alurabi) becomes Emir of Hail.
  • 1795: Saudi forces attack Shammar near Samawa and Mutlag is killed. (Some say this occurred in 1797 in the Battle of Alabyadh, and that Mutlag died and Shammar entered Aljazeera in the same year.)
  • 1797: Alsaud attacks north of Soug Alshiokh; Faris Bin Mohammad Aljarba takes over; Wahabis are turned back.
  • 1798: A large coalition including Shammar, Alubaid and Ottoman armies &ndash more than 500 strong &ndash goes to Basra; Mutlag dies.
  • 1799: Ali Basha leaves Zuabir with new allies from Almuntafig, Althufair and Bani Khalid; they fight for a year.
  • 1800: Truce is broken and an indecisive battle with the Wahabis takes place near Karbala.
  • 1800: Incident between Faris al Jarba and Shiekh Alamoud Fayez Ibn Huthayl.
  • 1801: Wahabi pressure on southern Iraq subsides; Shammar migrates to reach Jabal Sinjar in northern Iraq. The Shiite holy city of Karbala is raided by 10,000 men on 6,000 camels; the plunder Hussien's tomb.
  • 1802: Late that year, a campaign against the Yezedi is launched by the Ottomans, Shammar, and Alubaid.
  • 1803: Ottoman seeks Shammar's help in a campaign against the Al Ubaid mutiny, but the campaign fails.
  • 1805: Faris Aljarba decisively defeats Alubaid.
  • 1808–1812: Baghdad comes under Saudi threats.
  • 1809: Anti-Thufair rebellion; Ottoman campaign under Faris Aljarba and Sulaimna Basha Alsaghir, Althufair and Rola Triomph.
  • 1814: Shammar Aljarba raids several Iraqi cities.
  • 1815: Khazaal, Zuabair, and Shammar rebel against Said Basha Uniza, alubaid, and thufair put down the rebellion; Shiekh Banaia is killed in battle.
  • 1818: Shiekh Sfoug bin Faris Aljarba Takes over. Mohamad Bin Abdul mohsin Bin Ali is beheaded by Ibrahim Pasah and sent to his father Mohamad Ali Pasha in Egypt. Dirayiya is under siege by 2,000 cavalry and 56,000 infantry with 12 guns.
  • 1820s: Mohamad bin Ali is killed and his brother Saleh becomes ruler of town.
  • 1822 Shammar's Sfoug aljarba defeats a 40,000-strong Persian army meant for Baghdad.
  • 1822: Alawajya wars begin.
  • 1823: Anna is bequeathed to Sfoug.
  • 1824: Uniza raids Shammar and steals their Arabian horses.
  • 1831: Shammar aids the Ottoman siege of Baghdad to remove its rebellious Dawood Pasha.
  • 1832: Shammar retaliates against Ali Pasha and declares rebellion.
  • 1832: The Egyptian invasion of Syria forces Uniza to leave the Syrian desert and enter Aljazera with 35,000 men.
  • 1833: Two Pashas join the rebellion and attack the Yazidis in Sinjar to stop their looting.
  • July 1833: Shammar besieges Baghdad and intercepts all Ottoman correspondence 20–30 miles north. Abdullah bin Rashid, the future founder of the emirate of Ha'il is said to have taken part.
  • 1833: Five thousand Ottomans under Mohamad Pasha leave a rebellion near Hilla and attack Shammar; the siege remains active.
  • 1833: Late in the year, Shammar moves north to help Mosul's Pasha; the siege is broken and Ottomans launch a successful surprise attack.
  • 1834: Rogue Sheikh Shlash of Shammar attacks Uniza in support of the Ottomans; Sfoug supports Shlash with 2,000 men; Uniza wins.
  • 1835: Uniza crosses the Euphrates and leaves Aljazeera.
  • 1835: Shammar is at the peak of its power in Aljazeera and Sfoug Aljarba is Soultan Albar.
  • 1835: Rasheed Pasha ambushes Sfoug and his son Farhan and exiles him to the Istana.
  • 1835: Shammar retaliates by raiding and destroying the fields of Tikrit.
  • 1836: Battles ensue between Shammar and Uniza; Sfoug's brother Faris bin Mohamad rules over 12,000 families; Mohamad Ali Pasha's forces reach Yanbo for a second invasion of Arabia.
  • 1836: Alrashid establishes an emirate centered at Hail.
  • 1837: Shammar's unity fragments in Iraq.
  • 1838: Abdullah bin Rasheed goes to Iraq.
  • 1840: Shammar Jarba attacks the Egyptians at Orfa.
  • 1841: Anna is taken away from Sfoug.
  • 1842: Shammar jarba retaliates by raiding near Alkhabor; there is some internal splintering.
  • 1843: Sfoug is reappointed as Shammar's Shiekh.
  • 1844: Shammar Jarba raids Uniza near Harran; it is a famine year.
  • 1844: In summer Uniza brings 20,000 men and raids the area between Baghdad and Mosul.
  • 1844: Shammar, with only 1000 men, allies with the Kurdish cavalry to expel Uniza; Fighting continues in the fall.
  • 1845: Uniza seeks a truce, giving 15,000 sheep, 3,000 camels and 8 horses.
  • 1845: Shammar Jarba defeats Uniza and spoils 7,000 sheep; famine strikes Shammar.
  • 1845: The Emirate of Hail is declared.
  • 1846: Farhan becomes the Sheikh of Sheikhs; of the other six brothers, the runner-up is Abdulkareem.
  • 1846?: Abdulkarim declares a revolution against the Ottomans; Naser Alsadoun delivers him to the Ottomans and he is hanged.
  • 1847: Internal fighting between rebellious Shammaris; Sfoug is assassinated and beheaded by Najeeb Pasha (some say 1857).
  • December 1847: Shammar raids Aljazeera; Najeeb Pasha appoints Oda as Sheikh.
  • 1848: In spring Uniza raids Shammar under Daham Ibn Gaishish and Ibn Hath-thal.
  • 1850–1851: Abdi Pasha stops his Shammar rations: Shammar raids southern Baghdad.
  • 1852: Shammar defeat Unizah and Alqusaim in the Battle of Baqa.
  • 1853-1856: Ottoman control outside of big cities plummets.
  • 1855: Ibn Sulaim raids Hail and kills wild Alaslamya in Ramdhan.
  • 1856: Ibn Rashid kills Ibn Sulaim in Ramdhan as vengeance.
  • 1859: The feast for a wolf by Mukazi Ibn Sayed.
  • 1871: Ubaid bin Rasheed dies of old age (according to oral tradition).
  • 1876: Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Rasheed capitalizes on internal disputes between Abdullah and Saud bin Faisal and enters Alqaseem.
  • 1887: Mohammed Bin Rasheed is asked in a poem by Mohammed bin Jasem of Qatar to help against a coalition of other emirates. The coalition is defeated and Barzan Tower is built in Qatar to commemorate the occasion.
  • 1882: Mohammed bin Abdullah bin Rasheed and Hassan bin Muhana defend the town of Almujama against Abdulla bin Faisal.
  • 1895: Almulaida battles against Alquseem.
  • 1897: Battle of Binban; all of Najd is under Mohammed bin Rasheed.
  • March 1901: Battle of Alsarif: 1200 Shammaris lost 400 under Abdul Aziz Almutab Alrashid defeat an invasion of Hayel against the Emir of Kuwait over 64000 men and lost 9000.
  • 1907: Aljanazah is assassinated and Hail is ruled by the sons of Sheikh Humoud bin Ubaid Alrasheed.
  • 1910: Ajumaima against Saud Abdulaziz bin Rasheed Shammar defeats Alruoula and Unizah. Hail is ruled by Aljanazah under the guardianship of Alsabhan.
  • 1910: Aljumaima Shammar against Unizah and Alerwilah.
  • March 1910: Battleof Hadya: 500 Shammari horsemen join Alsadoun on 4000 in a battle again Sabah backed by Abdulaziz Alsaud and defeat them.
  • 1914: Zamel Alsabhan is killed.
  • 1915: Aljurab Battle: Ibn Rasheed is victorious against Ibn Saud; death of a British intelligence officer called Shakespeare.
  • 1916: Battle of Abu Ajaj: Shammar defeats Alshfair and Albudoor.
  • 1920: Zuba participates in Iraq's 1920 revolution against the British.
  • 1921: 1299+622 Mohamad Ibn adullah bin Rashid ends the siege of Aridh and Abdullah ibn Faisal retreats.
  • 1921: Arwa Battle Utaiba and Shammar Utaiba is defeated.
  • 1932: population of Hail is estimated at 20,000; Badu Shammar at 150,000–200,000 of which 30% are Alaslam, 37% Abde, 25% Sinjara, 7.5% Tuman.
  • 1948: Shammar is driven out of the Negev south of Palestine by Israeli forces;
  • February 16, 1948: Battle of Zaraa.
  • April 10, 1948: Almanara.

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