Secularization

Secularization or secularisation (see spelling differences) is the transformation of a society from close identification with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious (or irreligious) values and secular institutions. The secularization thesis refers to the belief that as societies "progress", particularly through modernization and rationalization, religion loses its authority in all aspects of social life and governance. The term secularization is also used in the context of the lifting of the monastic restrictions from a member of the clergy.

Secularization has many levels of meaning, both as a theory and a historical process. Social theorists such as Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, Max Weber, and Émile Durkheim, postulated that the modernization of society would include a decline in levels of religiosity. Study of this process seeks to determine the manner in which, or extent to which religious creeds, practices and institutions are losing social significance. Some theorists argue that the secularization of modern civilization partly results from our inability to adapt broad ethical and spiritual needs of mankind to the increasingly fast advance of the physical sciences.

The term also has additional meanings, primarily historical and religious. Applied to church property, historically it refers to the seizure of monastic lands and buildings by anti-clerical European governments during the 18th and 19th centuries, which resulted in the expulsion and suppression of the religious communities which occupied them (see Kulturkampf). Otherwise, secularization involves the abandonment of goods by the Church where it is sold to purchasers after the government seizes the property, which most commonly happens after reasonable negotiations and arrangements are made. In Catholic canon law, the term can also denote the permission or authorization given for a member of a religious order to live outside his or her religious community or monastery, either for a fixed or permanent period.

Read more about SecularizationBackground, Definitions, Opposition, Sociological Use and Differentiation, Institutional Secularization, Current Issues in The Study of Secularization

Other articles related to "secularization":

Wilderich Of Walderdorf
... His reign was short, from 1797 until the secularization in 1803 ... In was unusual that during the secularization, Wilderich was able to live in the south wing of his official residence, the baroque palace in Bruchsal, until his death in ... In the Treaty of Lunéville Napoleon had initiated the secularization ...
Modern Life? - Defining Modernity - Secularization
... Modernity, or the Modern Age, is typically defined as a post-traditional, and post-medieval historical period (Heidegger 1938, 66–67) ... Central to modernity is emancipation from religion, specifically the hegemony of Christianity, and the consequent secularization ...
Charles Taylor (philosopher) - Philosophy and Sociology of Religion
... contribution to date is his book A Secular Age which argues against the secularization thesis of Max Weber, Steve Bruce, and others ... In rough form, the secularization thesis holds that as modernity (a bundle of phenomena including science, technology, and rational forms of authority) progresses, religion ... develops a complex alternate notion of what secularization actually means given that the secularization thesis has not been borne out ...
Current Issues in The Study of Secularization
... At present, secularization as understood in the West is being debated in the sociology of religion ... Demerath) have countered by introducing the idea of neo-secularization, which broadens the definition of secularization to include the decline of religious authority and its ability to ... than using the proportion of irreligious apostates as the sole measure of secularity, neo-secularization argues that individuals increasingly look outside of religion for authoritative ...
Salem Abbey - Secularization
... the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803 and the nearly complete secularization in Germany the history of the monastery ended and the monks left the abbey ...